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CS201 Book

Lecture No. 1 Summary o What is programming o Why programming is important o What skills are needed o Develop a basic recipe for writing programs o Points to remember What is programming As this course is titled “Introduction to programming”, therefore it is most essential and appropriate to understand what programming really means. Let us first see a widely known definition of programming. Definition: “A program is a precise sequence of steps to solve a particular problem.” It means that when we say that we have a program, it actually means that we know about a complete set activities to be performed in a particular order. The purpose of these activities is to solve a given problem. Alan Perlis, a professor at Yale University, says: “It goes against the grain of modern education to teach children to program. What fun is there in making plans, acquiring discipline in organizing thoughts, devoting attention to detail and learning to be self-critical? ” It is a sarcastic statement about modern education, and it means that the modern education is not developing critical skills like planning, organizing and paying attention to detail. Practically, in our day to day lives we are constantly planning, organizing and paying attention to fine details (if we want our plans to succeed). And it is also fun to do these activities. For example, for a picnic trip we plan where to go, what to wear, what to take for lunch, organize travel details and have a good time while doing so. When we talk about computer programming then as Mr. Steve Summit puts it “At its most basic level, programming a computer simply means telling it what to do, and this vapid-sounding definition is not even a joke. There are no other truly fundamental aspects of computer programming; everything else we talk about will simply be the details of a particular, usually artificial, mechanism for telling a computer what to do. Sometimes these mechanisms are chosen because they have been found to be convenient for programmers (people) to use; other times they have been chosen because they’re easy for the computer to understand. The first hard thing about programming is to learn, become comfortable with, and accept these artificial mechanisms, whether they make “sense” to you or not. “

Why Programming is important The question most of the people ask is why should we learn to program when there are so many application software and code generators available to do the task for us. Well the answer is as give by the Matthias Felleisen in the book ‘How to design programs’ “The answer consists of two parts. First, it is indeed true that traditional forms of programming are useful for just a few people. But, programming as we the authors understand it is useful for everyone: the administrative secretary who uses spreadsheets as well as the high-tech programmer. In other words, we have a broader notion of programming in mind than the traditional one. We explain our notion in a moment. Second, we teach our idea of programming with a technology that is based on the principle of minimal intrusion. Hence, our notion of programming teaches problem-analysis and problem-solving skills without imposing the overhead of traditional programming notations and tools.” Hence learning to program is important because it develops analytical and problem solving abilities. It is a creative activity and provides us a mean to express abstract ideas. Thus programming is fun and is much more than a vocational skill. By designing programs, we learn many skills that are important for all professions. These skills can be summarized as: o Critical reading o Analytical thinking o Creative synthesis What skills are needed Programming is an important activity as people life and living depends on the programs one make. Hence while programming one should o Paying attention to detail o Think about the reusability. o Think about user interface o Understand the fact the computers are stupid o Comment the code liberally Paying attention to detail In programming, the details matter. This is a very important skill. A good programmer always analyzes the problem statement very carefully and in detail. You should pay attention to all the aspects of the problem. You can’t be vague. You can’t describe your program 3/4th of the way, then say, “You know what I mean?”, and have the compiler figure out the rest. Furthermore you should pay attention to the calculations involved in the program, its flow, and most importantly, the logic of the program. Sometimes, a grammatically correct sentence does not make any sense. For example, here is a verse from poem “Through the Looking Glass” written by Lewis Carol:

“Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe “ The grammar is correct but there is no meaning. Similarly, the sentence, “Mr. ABC sleeps thirty hours every day”, is grammatically correct but it is illogical. So it may happen that a program is grammatically correct. It compiles and runs but produces incorrect or absurd results and does not solve the problem. It is very important to pay attention to the logic of the program. Think about the reusability When ever you are writing a program, always keep in mind that it could be reused at some other time. Also, try to write in a way that it can be used to solve some other related problem. A classic example of this is: Suppose we have to calculate the area of a given circle. We know the area of a circle is (Pi * r2 ). Now we have written a program which calculates the area of a circle with given radius. At some later time we are given a problem to find out the area of a ring. The area of the ring can be calculated by subtracting the area of outer circle from the area of the inner circle. Hence we can use the program that calculates the area of a circle to calculate the area of the ring. Think about Good user interface As programmers, we assume that computer users know a lot of things, this is a big mistake. So never assume that the user of your program is computer literate. Always provide an easy to understand and easy to use interface that is self explanatory.

Understand the fact that computers are stupid Computers are incredibly stupid. They do exactly what you tell them to do: no more, no less– unlike human beings. Computers can’t think by themselves. In this sense, they differ from human beings. For example, if someone asks you, “What is the time?”, “Time please?” or just, “Time?” you understand anyway that he is asking the time but computer is different. Instructions to the computer should be explicitly stated. Computer will tell you the time only if you ask it in the way you have programmed it. When you’re programming, it helps to be able to “think” as stupidly as the computer does, so that you are in the right frame of mind for specifying everything in minute detail, and not assuming that the right thing will happen by itself. Comment the code liberally Always comment the code liberally. The comment statements do not affect the performance of the program as these are ignored by the compiler and do not take any memory in the computer. Comments are used to explain the functioning of the programs. It helps the other programmers as well as the creator of the program to understand the code. Program design recipe In order to design a program effectively and properly we must have a recipe to follow. In the book name ‘How to design programs’ by Matthias Felleisen.and the co-worker, the idea of design recipe has been stated very elegenlty as “Learning to design programs is like learning to play soccer. A player must learn to trap a ball, to dribble with a ball, to pass, and to shoot a ball. Once the player knows those basic skills, the next goals are to learn to play a position, to play certain strategies, to choose among feasible strategies, and, on occasion, to create variations of a strategy because none fits. “ The author then continue to say that: “A programmer is also very much like an architect, a composers, or a writer. They are creative people who start with ideas in their heads and blank pieces of paper. They conceive of an idea, form a mental outline, and refine it on paper until their writings reflect their mental image as much as possible. As they bring their ideas to paper, they employ basic drawing, writing, and playing music to express certain style elements of a building, to describe a person’s character, or to formulate portions of a melody. They can practice their trade because they have honed their basic skills for a long time and can use them on an instinctive level. Programmers also form outlines, translate them into first designs, and iteratively refine them until they truly match the initial idea. Indeed, the best programmers edit and rewrite their programs many times until they meet certain aesthetic standards. And just like soccer players, architects, composers, or writers, programmers must practice the basic skills of their trade for a long time before they can be truly creative. Design recipes are the equivalent of soccer ball handling techniques, writing techniques, arrangements, and drawing skills. “

Hence to design a program properly, we must: o Analyze a problem statement, typically expressed as a word problem. o Express its essence, abstractly and with examples. o Formulate statements and comments in a precise language. o Evaluate and revise the activities in light of checks and tests and o Pay attention to detail. All of these are activities that are useful, not only for a programmer but also for a businessman, a lawyer, a journalist, a scientist, an engineer, and many others. Let us take an example to demonstrate the use of design recipe: Suppose we have to develop a payroll system of a company. The company has permanent staff, contractual staff, hourly based employees and per unit making employees. Moreover, there are different deductions and benefits for permanent employees and there is a bonus for per unit making employees and overtime for contractual employees. We need to analyze the above problem statement. The company has four categories of employees; i.e.; Permanent staff, Contractual staff, hourly based employees and per unit making employees. Further, permanent staff has benefits and deductions depending upon their designation. Bonus will be given to per unit making employees if they make more than 10 pieces a day. Contractual employee will get overtime if they stay after office hours. Now divide the problem into small segments and calculations. Also include examples in all segments. In this problem, we should take an employee with his details from each category. Let’s say, Mr. Ahmad is a permanent employee working as Finance Manager. His salary is Rs.20000 and benefits of medical, car allowance and house rent are Rs.4000 and there is a deduction of Rs.1200. Similarly, we should consider employees from other categories. This will help us in checking and testing the program later on. The next step is to formulate these statements in a precise language, i.e. we can use the pseudo code and flowcharting. which will be then used to develop the program using computer language. Then the program should be evaluated by testing and checking. If there are some changes identified, we revise the activities and repeat the process. Thus repeating the cycle, we achieve a refined solution. Points to remember Hence the major points to keep in mind are: o Don’t assume on the part of the users

o User Interface should be friendly o Don’t forget to comment the code o PAY ATTENTION TO DETAIL o Program, program and program, not just writing code, but the whole process of design and development

Lecture No. 2 Reading Material Deitel & Deitel – C++ How to Program chapter 1 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.7 1.11, 1.12, 1.13 Summary o Software Categories o System Software o Application Software o History of C language o Development Environment of ‘C’ Software Categories Software is categorized into two main categories o System Software o Application Software

System Software The system software controls the computer. It communicates with computer’s hardware (key board, mouse, modem, sound card etc) and controls different aspects of operations. Sub categories of system software are: o Operating system o Device drivers o Utilities Operating system An operating system (sometimes abbreviated as “OS”) is the program that manages all the other programs in a computer. It is a integrated collection of routines that service the sequencing and processing of programs by a computer. Note: An operating system may provide many services, such as resource allocation, scheduling, input/output control, and data management. Definition “Operating system is the software responsible for controlling the allocation and usage of hardware resources such as memory, central processing unit (CPU) time, disk space, and peripheral devices. The operating system is the foundation on which applications, such as word processing and spreadsheet programs, are built. (Microsoft)”

Device drivers The device driver software is used to communicate between the devices and the computer. We have monitor, keyboard and mouse attached to almost all PC’s; if we look at the properties of these devices we will see that the operating system has installed special software to control these devices. This piece of software is called device driver software. When we attach a new device with the computer, we need software to communicate with this device. These kinds of software are known as device drivers e.g. CD Rom driver, Sound Card driver and Modem driver. Normally manufacturer of the device provide the device driver software with the device. For scanners to work properly with the computers we install the device driver of the scanner. Nowadays if you have seen a scanner, it comes with TWAIN Drivers. TWAIN stands for Technology Without An Interesting Name. Utility Software Utility software is a program that performs a very specific task, usually related to managing system resources. You would have noticed a utility of Disk Compression. Whenever you write a file and save it to the disk, Compression Utility compresses the file (reduce the file size) and write it to the disk and when you request this file from the disk, the compression utility uncompressed the file and shows its contents. Similarly there is another utility, Disk Defragmentation which is used to defragment the disk. The data is stored on the disks in chunks, so if we are using several files and are making changes to these files then the different portions of file are saved on different locations on the disk. These chunks are linked and the operating system knows how to read the contents of file from the disk combining all the chunks. Similarly when we delete a file then the place where that file was stored on the disk is emptied and is available now to store other files. As the time goes on, we have a lot of empty and used pieces on the disk. In such situation we say that the disk is fragmented now. If we remove this fragmentation the chunks of data on the disk will be stored close to each other and thus reading of data will be faster. For the purpose of removing fragmentation on the disk the Defragmentation utility is used. The compilers and interpreters also belong to the System Software category. Application software A program or group of programs designed for end users. For example a program for Accounting, Payroll, Inventory Control System, and guided system for planes. GPS (global positioning system), another application software, is being used in vehicles, which through satellite determines the geographical position of the vehicle History of C language The C language was developed in late 60’s and early 70’s, in Bell Laboratories. In those days BCPL and B languages were developed there. The BCPL language was developed in 1967 by Martin Richards as a language for writing operating systems software and compilers. In 1970 Ken Thompson used B language to create early

versions of the UNIX operating system at Bell Laboratories. Thus both the languages were being used to develop various system software even compilers. Both BCPL and B were ‘type less’ languages, every data item occupied one ‘word’ in memory and the burden of treating a data item as a whole number or real number, for example was the responsibility of the programmer. Dennis Ritchie developed a general purpose language, called C language, by using different features of BCPL and B languages. C uses many important concepts of BCPL and B while adding data typing and other features. In the start C became widely known as the development language of the UNIX operating system, and the UNIX operating system was written by using this C language. The C language is so powerful that the compiler of C and other various operating systems are written in C. C language has almost unlimited powers to do with computers. You can program to turn on or off any device of computer. You can do a lot to hard disk and other peripherals. It is very easy to write a program in C that stops the running of computer. So be careful while programming in C. The C language and UNIX operating system widely spread in educational and research institutions. There was C and UNIX everywhere. Due to the wide spread of C, different researchers started to add their features in the language. And thus different variations in C came into existence. Many universities developed their own C by adding different features to the C language developed by Ritchie. These variations led to the need of a standard version of C. In 1983 a technical committee was created under the American National Standards Committee on Computer and Information Processing to provide an unambiguous and machine-independent definition of the language. In 1989 the standard was approved. ANSI cooperated with the International Standard Organization (ISO) to standardize C worldwide. Tools of the trade As programmer we need different tools to develop a program. These tools are needed for the life cycle of programs Editors First of all we need a tool for writing the code of a program. For this purpose we used Editors in which we write our code. We can use word processor too for this, but word processors have many other features like bold the text, italic, coloring the text etc, so when we save a file written in a word processor, lot of other information including the text is saved on the disk. For programming purposes we don’t need these things we only need simple text. Text editors are such editors which save only the text which we type. So for programming we will be using a text editor Compiler and Interpreter As we write the code in English and we know that computers can understand only 0s and 1s. So we need a translator which translates the code of our program into machine language. There are two kinds of translators which are known as Interpreter and Compilers. These translators translate our program which is written in C-Language into Machine language. Interpreters translates the program line by line meaning it reads one line of program and translates it, then it reads second line, translate it and so on. The benefit of it is that we get the errors as we go along and it is very easy to correct the errors. The drawback of the interpreter is that the program executes slowly

as the interpreter translates the program line by line. Another drawback is that as interpreters are reading the program line by line so they cannot get the overall picture of the program hence cannot optimize the program making it efficient. Compilers also translate the English like language (Code written in C) into a language (Machine language) which computers can understand. The Compiler read the whole program and translates it into machine language completely. The difference between interpreter and compiler is that compiler will stop translating if it finds an error and there will be no executable code generated whereas Interpreter will execute all the lines before error and will stop at the line which contains the error. So Compiler needs syntactically correct program to produce an executable code. We will be using compiler in our course Debugger Another important tool is Debugger. Every programmer should be familiar with it. Debugger is used to debug the program i.e. to correct the logical errors. Using debugger we can control our program while it is running. We can stop the execution of our program at some point and can check the values in different variables, can change these values etc. In this way we can trace the logical errors in our program and can see whether our program is producing the correct results. This tool is very powerful, so it is complex too Linker Most of the time our program is using different routines and functions that are located in different files, hence it needs the executable code of those routines/functions. Linker is a tool which performs this job, it checks our program and includes all those routines or functions which we are using in our program to make a standalone executable code and this process is called Linking Loader After a executable program is linked and saved on the disk and it is ready for execution. We need another process which loads the program into memory and then instruct the processor to start the execution of the program from the first instruction (the starting point of every C program is from the main function). This processor is known as loader. Linker and loaders are the part of development environment. These are part of system software. The following figure represents a graphical explanation of all the steps involved in writing and executing a program.

Lecture No. 3 Reading Material Deitel & Deitel – C++ How to Program chapter 1 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22 Summary First C program Variables Data Types Arithmetic Operators Precedence of Operators Tips First C program The best way to learn C is to start coding right away. So here is our very first program in C. # include main() { cout << “Welcome to Virtual University of Pakistan”; } We will look at this code line by line and try to understand them. # include #include: This is a pre-processor directive. It is not part of our program; it is an instruction to the compiler. It tells the C compiler to include the contents of a file, in this case the system file iostream.h. The compiler knows that it is a system file, and therefore looks for it in a special place. The features of preprocessor will be discussed later. For the time being take this line on faith. You have to write this line. The sign # is known as HASH and also called SHARP. This is the name of the library definition file for all Input Output Streams. Your program will almost certainly want to send stuff to the screen and read things from the keyboard. iostream.h is the name of the file in which has code to do that work for you

main() The name main is special, in that the main is actually the one which is run when your program is used. A C program is made up of a large number of functions. Each of these is given a name by the programmer and they refer to each other as the program runs. C regards the name “main” as a special case and will run this function first. If you forget to have a main function, or mistype the name, the compiler will give you an error. Notice that there are parentheses (“( )”, normal brackets) with main. Here the parentheses contain nothing. There may be something written inside the parentheses. It will be discussed in next lectures. { } Next, there is a curly bracket also called braces(“{ }”). For every open brace there must be a matching close. Braces allows to group together pieces of a program. The body of main is enclosed in braces. Braces are very important in C; they enclose the blocks of the program. cout << “ Welcome to Virtual University of Pakistan” cout: This is known as out put stream in C and C++. Stream is a complicated thing, you will learn about it later. Think a stream as a door. The data is transferred through stream, cout takes data from computer and sends it to the output. For the moment it is a screen of the monitor. hence we use cout for output. << The sign << indicates the direction of data. Here it is towards cout and the function of cout is to show data on the screen. “ Welcome to Virtual University of Pakistan” The thing between the double quotes (“ ”) is known as character string. In C programming character strings are written in double quotes. Whatever is written after << and within quotation marks will be direct it to cout, cout will display it on the screen. ; There is a semicolon (;) at the end of the above statement. This is very important. All C statements end with semicolon (;). Missing of a semicolon (;) at the end of statement is a syntax error and compiler will report an error during compilation. If there is only a semicolon (;) on a line than it will be called a null statement. i.e. it does nothing. The extra semicolons may be put at the end but are useless and aimless. Do not put semicolon (;) at a wrong place, it may cause a problem during the execution of the program or may cause a logical error. In this program we give a fixed character string to cout and the program prints it to the screen as: Variables During programming we need to store data. This data is stored in variables. Variables are locations in memory for storing data. The memory is divided into blocks. It can be viewed as pigeon-holes. You can also think of it as PO Boxes. In post offices there are different boxes and each has an address. Similarly in memory, there is a numerical address for each location of memory (block). It is difficult for us to handle these numerical addresses in our programs. So we give a name to these locations. These names are variables. We call them variables because they can contain different values at different times.

The variable names in C may be started with a character or an underscore ( _ ). But avoid starting a name with underscore ( _ ). C has many libraries which contain variables and function names normally starting with underscore ( _ ). So your variable name starting with underscore ( _ ) may conflict with these variables or function names. In a program every variable has Name Type Size Value The variables having a name, type and size (type and size will be discussed later) are just empty boxes. They are useless until we put some value in them. To put some value in these boxes is known as assigning values to variables. In C language, we use assignment operator for this purpose. Assignment Operator In C language equal-to-sign (=) is used as assignment operator. Do not confuse the algebraic equal-to with the assignment operator. In Algebra X = 2 means the value of X is 2, whereas in C language X = 2 (where X is a variable name) means take the value 2 and put it in the memory location labeled as X, afterwards you can assign some other value to X, for example you can write X = 10, that means now the memory location X contains the value 10 and the previous value 2 is no more there. Assignment operator is a binary operator (a binary operator has two operands). It must have variable on left hand side and expression (that evaluates to a single value) on right hand side. This operator takes the value on right hand side and stores it to the location labeled as the variable on left hand side, e.g. X = 5, X = 10 + 5, and X = X +1. In C language the statement X = X + 1 means that add 1 to the value of X and then store the result in X variable. If the value of X is 10 then after the execution of this statement the value of X becomes 11. This is a common practice for incrementing the value of the variable by ‘one in C language. Similarly you can use the statement X = X – 1 for decrementing the value of the variable by one. The statement X = X + 1 in algebra is not valid except when X is infinity. So do not confuse assignment operator (=) with equal sign (=) in algebra. Remember that assignment operator must have a variable name on left hand side unlike algebra in which you can use expression on both sides of equal sign (=). For example, in algebra, X +5 = Y + 7 is correct but incorrect in C language. The compiler will not understand it and will give error. Data Types A variable must have a data type associated with it, for example it can have data types like integer, decimal numbers, characters etc. The variable of type Integer stores integer values and a character type variable stores character value. The primary difference between various data types is their size in memory. Different data types have different size in memory depending on the machine and compilers. These also affect the way they are displayed. The ‘cout’ knows how to display a digit and a character. There are few data types in C language. These data types are reserved words of C language. The reserve words can not be used as a variable name. Let’s take a look into different data types that the C language provides us to deal with whole numbers, real numbers and character data. Whole Numbers

The C language provides three data types to handle whole numbers. int short long int Data Type The data type int is used to store whole numbers (integers). The integer type has a space of 4 bytes (32 bits for windows operating system) in memory. And it is mentioned as ‘int’ which is a reserved word of C, so we can not use it as a variable name. In programming before using any variable name we have to declare that variable with its data type. If we are using an integer variable named as ‘i’, we have to declare it as int i ; The above line is known as declaration statement. When we declare a variable in this way, it reserves some space in memory depending on the size of data type and labels it with the variable name. The declaration statement int i ; reserves 4 bytes of memory and labels it as ‘i’. This happens at the execution time. Sample Program 1 Let’s consider a simple example to explain int data type. In this example we take two integers, add them and display the answer on the screen. The code of the program is written below. #include main() { int x; int y; int z; x = 5; y = 10; z = x + y; cout << “x = “; cout << x; cout << “ y=“; cout << y; cout << “ z = x + y = “; cout << z; } The first three lines declare three variables x, y and z as following. int x; int y; int z;

These three declarations can also be written on one line. C provides us the comma separator (,). The above three lines can be written in a single line as below int x, y, z; As we know that semicolon (;) indicates the end of the statement. So we can write many statements on a single line. In this way we can also write the above declarations in the following form int x; int y; int z; For good programming practice, write a single statement on a single line. Now we assign values to variables x and y by using assignment operator. The lines x = 5; and y = 10 assign the values 5 and 10 to the variables x and y, respectively. These statements put the values 5 and 10 to the memory locations labeled as x and y. The next statement z = x + y; evaluates the expression on right hand side. It takes values stored in variables x and y (which are 5 and 10 respectively), adds them and by using the assignment operator (=), puts the value of the result, which is 15 in this case, to the memory location labeled as z. Here a thing to be noted is that the values of x and y remains the same after this operation. In arithmetic operations the values of variables used in expression on the right hand side are not affected. They remain the same. But a statement like x = x + 1; is an exceptional case. In this case the value of x is changed. The next line cout << “ x = “ ; is simple it just displays ‘ x = ‘ on the screen. Now we want to display the value of x after ‘x =’. For this we write the statement cout << x ; Here comes the affect of data type on cout. The previous statement cout << “x = “ ; has a character string after << sign and cout simply displays the string. In the statement cout << x; there is a variable name x. Now cout will not display ‘x’ but the value of x. The cout interprets that x is a variable of integer type, it goes to the location x in the memory and takes its value and displays it in integer form, on the screen. The next line cout << ”y =”; displays ‘ y = ‘ on the screen. And line cout << y; displays the value of y on the screen. Thus we see that when we write something in quotation marks it is displayed as it is but when we use a variable name it displays the value of the variable not name of the variable. The next two lines cout << “z = x + y = ”; and cout << z; are written to display ‘z = x + y = ’ and the value of z that is 15. Now when we execute the program after compiling, we get the following output. x = 5 y = 10 z = x + y = 15 short Data type We noted that the integer occupies four bytes in memory. So if we have to store a small integer like 5, 10 or 20 four bytes would be used. The C provides another data type for storing small whole numbers which is called short. The size of short is two bytes and it can store numbers in range of -32768 to 32767. So if we are going to use a variable for which we know that it will not increase from 32767, for example the age of different people, then we use the data type short for age. We can write the above sample program by using short instead of int.

long Data Type On the other side if we have a very large whole number that can not be stored in an int then we use the data type long provided by C. So when we are going to deal with very big whole numbers in our program, we use long data type. We use it in program as: long x = 300500200; Real Numbers The C language provides two data types to deal with real numbers (numbers with decimal points e.g. 1.35, 735.251). The real numbers are also known as floating point numbers. float double float Data Type To store real numbers, float data type is used. The float data type uses four bytes to store a real number. Here is program that uses float data types.

double Data Type If we need to store a large real number which cannot be store in four bytes, then we use double data type. Normally the size of double is twice the size of float. In program we use it as: double x = 345624.769123; char Data Type So far we have been looking on data types to store numbers, In programming we do need to store characters like a,b,c etc. For storing the character data C language provides char data type. By using char data type we can store characters in variables. While assigning a character value to a char type variable single quotes are used around the character as ‘a’. /* This program uses short data type to store values */ #include main() { char x; x = ’a’; cout << “The character value in x = “; cout << x; } Arithmetic Operators In C language we have the usual arithmetic operators for addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. C also provides a special arithmetic operator which is called modulus. All these operators are binary operators which means they operate on two operands. So we need two values for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and modulus.

Addition, subtraction and multiplication are same as we use in algebra. There is one thing to note in division that when we use integer division (i.e. both operands are integers) yields an integer result. This means that if, for example, you are dividing 5 by 2 (5 / 2) it will give integer result as 2 instead of actual result 2.5. Thus in integer division the result is truncated to the whole number, the fractional part (after decimal) is ignored. If we want to get the correct result, then we should use float data type. The modulus operator returns the remainder after division. This operator can only be used with integer operands. The expression x % y returns the remainder after x is divided by y. For example, the result of 5 % 2 will be 1, 23 % 5 will be 3 and 107%10 will be 7. Precedence of Operators The arithmetic operators in an expression are evaluated according to their precedence. The precedence means which operator will be evaluated first and which will be evaluated after that and so on. In an expression, the parentheses ( ) are used to force the evaluation order. The operators in the parentheses ( ) are evaluated first. If there are nested parentheses then the inner most is evaluated first. The expressions are always evaluated from left to right. The operators *, / and % have the highest precedence after parentheses. These operators are evaluated before + and – operators. Thus + and – operators has the lowest precedence. It means that if there are * and + operators in an expression then first the * will be evaluated and then its result will be added to other operand. If there are * and / operators in an expression (both have the same precedence) then the operator which occurs first from left will be evaluated first and then the next, except you force any operator to evaluate by putting parentheses around it. The following table explains the precedence of the arithmetic operators:

Lets look some examples. What is the result of 10 + 10 * 5 ? The answer is 60 not 100. As * has higher precedence than + so 10 * 5 is evaluated first and then the answer 50 is added to 10 and we get the result 60. The answer will be 100 if we force the addition operation to be done first by putting 10 + 10 in parentheses. Thus the same expression rewritten as (10 + 10) * 5 will give the result 100. Note that how the parentheses affect the evaluation of an expression

Similarly the expression 5 * 3 + 6 / 3 gives the answer 17, and not 7. The evaluation of this expression can be clarified by writing it with the use of parentheses as (5 * 3) + (6 / 3) which gives 15 + 2 = 17. Thus you should be careful while writing arithmetic expressions. Tips Use spaces in the coding to make it easy to read and understand Reserved words can not be used as variable names There is always a main( ) in a C program that is the starting point of execution Write one statement per line Type parentheses ’( )’ and braces ‘{ }’ in pairs Use parentheses for clarification in arithmetic expressions Don’t forget semicolon at the end of each statement C Language is case sensitive so variable names x and X are two different variables

Lecture No. 4 Reading Material Deitel & Deitel – C++ How to Program chapter 1 1.22 Summary o Sample Program o Examples of Expressions o Use of Operators o Tips Sample Program Problem statement: Calculate the average age of a class of ten students. Prompt the user to enter the age of each student. Solution: Lets first sort out the problem. In the problem we will take the ages of ten students from the user. To store these ages we will use ten variables, one variable for each student’s age. We will take the ages of students in whole numbers (in years only, like 10, 12, 15 etc), so we will use the variables of data type int. The variables declaration statement in our program will be as follow: int age1, age2, age3, age4, age5, age6, age7, age8, age9, age10; We have declared all the ten variables in a single line by using comma separator ( , ). This is a short method to declare a number of variables of the same data type. After this we will add all the ages to get the total age and store this total age in a variable. Then we will get the average age of the ten students by dividing this total age by 10. For the storage of total and average ages we need variables. For this purpose we use variable TotalAge for the total of ages and AverageAge for average of ages respectively. int TotalAge, AverageAge; We have declared AverageAge as int data type so it can store only whole numbers. The average age of the class can be in real numbers with decimal point (for example if total age is 173 then average age will be 17.3). But the division of integers will

produce integer result only and the decimal portion is truncated. If we need the actual result then we should use real numbers (float or double) in our program. Now we have declared variables for storing different values. In the next step we prompt the user to enter the age of first student. We simply show a text line on the screen by using the statement: cout << “Please enter the age of first student : ” ; So on the screen the sentence “Please enter the age of first student:” will appear. Whenever we are requesting user to enter some information we need to be very clear i.e. write such sentences that are self explanatory and user understands them thoroughly and correctly. Now with the above sentence everyone can understand that age would be entered for the first student. As we are expecting only whole numbers i.e. age in years only i.e. 10, 12 etc, our program is not to expect ages as 13.5 or 12.3 or 12 years and 3 months etc. We can refine our sentence such, that the user understands precisely that the age would be entered in whole number only. After this we allow the user to enter the age. To, get the age entered by the user into a variable, we use the statement: cin >> age1; Lets have a look on the statement cin >> age1; cin is the counter part of the cout. Here cin is the input stream that gets data from the user and assigns it to the variable on its right side. We know that the sign >> indicates the direction of the flow of data. In our statement it means that data comes from user and is assigned to the variable age1, where age1 is a variable used for storing the age entered for student1. Similarly we get the ages of all the ten students and store them into respective variables. That means the age of first student in age1, the age of second student in age2 and so on up to 10 students. When cin statement is reached in a program, the program stops execution and expects some input from the user. So when cin >> age1; is executed, the program expects from the user to type the age of the student1. After entering the age, the user has to press the ‘enter key’. Pressing ‘enter key’ conveys to the program that user has finished entering the input and cin assigns the input value to the variable on the right hand side which is age1 in this case. As we have seen earlier that in an assignment statement, we can have only one variable on left hand side of the assignment operator and on right hand side we can have an expression that evaluates to a single value. If we have an expression on the left hand side of assignment operator we get an error i.e. x = 2 + 4; is a correct statement but x + y = 3+ 5; is an incorrect statement as we can not have an expression on the left hand side. Similarly we can not have an expression after the >> sign with cin. So we can have one and only one variable after >> sign i.e. cin >> x; is a correct statement and cin >> x + y; is an incorrect statement. Next, we add all these values and store the result to the variable TotalAge. We use assignment operator for this purpose. On the right hand side of the assignment operator, we write the expression to add the ages and store the result in the variable, TotalAge on left hand side. For this purpose we write the statement as follow:


CS101 Book

Lecture 1 Introduction 1.1. Charles Babbage (1791-1871) Creator of the Analytical Engine – the first general-purpose digital computer (1833) The Analytical Engine was not built until 1943 (in the form of the Harvard Mark I) 1.2. The Analytical Engine A programmable, mechanical, digital machine Could carryout any calculation Could make decisions based upon the results of the previous calculation Components: input; memory; processor; output 1.3. Ada, Countess of Lovelace(1815-52) Babbage: the father of computing Ada: the mother? Wrote a program for computing the Bernoulli’s sequence on the Analytical Engine – world’s 1st computer program Ada: A programming language specifically designed by the US Dept of Defense for developing military applications was named Ada to honor her contributions towards computing A lesson that we all can learn from Babbage’s Life Charles Babbage had huge difficulties raising money to fund his research As a last resort, he designed a clever mathematical scheme along with Ada, the Countess of Lovelace It was designed to increase their odds while gambling. They bet money on horse races to raise enough money to support their research experiments Guess what happened at the end? The lost every penny that they had. Fast Bored Storage Here is a fact: In 1997 Deep Blue, a supercomputer designed by IBM, beat Gary Kasparov, the World Chess Champion That computer was exceptionally fast, did not get tired or bored. It just kept on analyzing the situation and kept on searching until it found the perfect move from its list of possible moves … Goals for Today: To develop an appreciation about the capabilities of computing To find about the structure & policies of this course

Web page development Web Development The World Wide Web Making a Web page Lists & tables Interactive forms Objective & methods Data types & operators Flow control & loops Arrays Built-in functions User-defined functions Events handling String manipulation Images & graphics Programming methodology Productivity Applications Word processor Spreadsheet Presentation software Database Instructor: Altaf Khan Course Web Page: UC – Understanding Computers (2000 ed.) JS – Learn JavaScript in a Weekend Reading Assignments Please make sure to read the assigned material for each week before the commencement of the corresponding week Reading that material beforehand will help you greatly in absorbing with ease the matter discussed during the lecture Check your e-mail often for announcements related to this and other VU courses Marks distribution … Assignments (15%) Almost one every week, 13 in all No credit for late submissions The lowest 2 assignment grades will be dropped Midterm Exam (35%) During the 8th week Duration: One hour Will cover all material covered during the first seven weeks Final Exam (50%) During the 16th week Will cover the whole of the course with a slight emphasis on the material covered after the midterm exam Duration: 2 hours First Assignment

Send an email message to me at altaf@vu.edu.pk with the subject “Assignment 1” giving me some information (in around 50 words) about what you see yourself doing ten years from now Go to the CS101 message board and post a message (consisting of approx. 50 words) about how we could make the contents of this course more suitable for your individual needs. The subject for this message should be “Assignment 1” Consult the CS101 syllabus for the submission deadline A suggestion about unfamiliar terms We try not to use any new terms without explaining them first However, it is not possible to do that all the time If you encounter any unfamiliar terms during the lectures, please note them down and consult the GLOSSARY provided at the end of the “Understanding Computers” text book for their meaning Let’s summarize the things that we have covered today? A few things about: the very first digital computer & its inventor the capability of modern computers the structure and contents of CS101 In the Next Lecture … We’ll continue the story of the evolution of digital computers form the Analytical Engine onwards. We’ll discuss many of the key inventions and developments that he lead to the shape of the current field of computing.

Lecture 2 Evolution of Computing Today’s Goal To learn about the evolution of computing To recount the important and key events To identify some of the milestones in computer development Babbage’s Analytical Engine – 1833 Mechanical, digital, general-purpose Was crank-driven Could store instructions Could perform mathematical calculations Had the ability to print Could punched cards as permanent memory Invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard 2.1 Turing Machine – 1936 Introduced by Alan Turing in 1936, Turing machines are one of the key abstractions used in modern computability theory, the study of what computers can and cannot do. A Turing machine is a particularly simple kind of computer, one whose operations are limited to reading and writing symbols on a tape, or moving along the tape to the left or right. The tape is marked off into squares, each of which can be filled with at most one symbol. At any given point in its operation, the Turing machine can only read or write on one of these squares, the square located directly below its “read/write” head. 2.2 The “Turing test” A test proposed to determine if a computer has the ability to think. In 1950, Alan Turing (Turing, 1950) proposed a method for determining if machines can think. This method is known as The Turing Test. The test is conducted with two people and a machine. One person plays the role of an interrogator and is in a separate room from the machine and the other person. The interrogator only knows the person and machine as A and B. The interrogator does not know which the person is and which the machine is. Using a teletype, the interrogator, can ask A and B any question he/she wishes. The aim of the interrogator is to determine which the person is and which the machine is. The aim of the machine is to fool the interrogator into thinking that it is a person. If the machine succeeds then we can conclude that machines can think.

Vacuum Tube – 1904:

A vacuum tube is just that: a glass tube surrounding a vacuum (an area from which all gases has been removed). What makes it interesting is that when electrical contacts are put on the ends, you can get a current to flow though that vacuum. A British scientist named John A. Fleming made a vacuum tube known today as a diode. Then the diode was known as a “valve,” 2.4 ABC – 1939 The Atanasoff-Berry Computer was the world’s first electronic digital computer. It was built by John Vincent Atanasoff and Clifford Berry at Iowa State University during 1937- 42. It incorporated several major innovations in computing including the use of binary arithmetic, regenerative memory, parallel processing, and separation of memory and computing functions. 2.5 Harvard Mark 1 – 1943: Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper designed the MARK series of computers at Harvard University. The MARK series of computers began with the Mark I in 1944. Imagine a giant roomful of noisy, clicking metal parts, 55 feet long and 8 feet high. The 5-ton device contained almost 760,000 separate pieces. Used by the US Navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations, the Mark I was in operation until 1959. The computer, controlled by pre-punched paper tape, could carry out addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and reference to previous results. It had special subroutines for logarithms and trigonometric functions and used 23 decimal place numbers. Data was stored and counted mechanically using 3000 decimal storage wheels, 1400 rotary dial switches, and 500 miles of wire. Its electromagnetic relays classified the machine as a relay computer. All output was displayed on an electric typewriter. By today’s standards, the Mark I was slow, requiring 3-5 seconds for a multiplication operation 2.6 ENIAC – 1946: ENIAC I (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator). The U.S. military sponsored their research; they needed a calculating device for writing artillery-firing tables (the settings used for different weapons under varied conditions for target accuracy). John Mauchly was the chief consultant and J Presper Eckert was the chief engineer. Eckert was a graduate student studying at the Moore School when he met John Mauchly in 1943. It took the team about one year to design the ENIAC and 18 months and 500,000 tax dollars to build it. The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes, along with 70,000 resistors and 10,000 capacitors. 2.7 Transistor – 1947 The first transistor was invented at Bell Laboratories on December 16, 1947 by William Shockley. This was perhaps the most important electronics event of the 20th century, as it later made possible the integrated circuit and microprocessor that are the basis of modern electronics. Prior to the transistor the only alternative to its current regulation and switching functions (TRANSfer resISTOR) was the vacuum tubes, which could only be miniaturized to a certain extent, and wasted a lot of energy in the form of heat. Compared to vacuum tubes, it offered: smaller size better reliability lower power consumption lower cost 2.8 Floppy Disk – 1950 Invented at the Imperial University in Tokyo by Yoshiro Nakamats 2.9 UNIVAC 1 – 1951 UNIVAC-1. The first commercially successful electronic computer, UNIVAC I, was also the first general purpose computer – designed to handle both numeric and textual information. It was designed by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly. The implementation of this machine marked the real beginning of the computer era.

Remington Rand delivered the first UNIVAC machine to the U.S. Bureau of Census in 1951. This machine used magnetic tape for input. first successful commercial computer design was derived from the ENIAC (same developers) first client = U.S. Bureau of the Census $1 million 48 systems built 2.10 Compiler – 1952 Grace Murray Hopper an employee of Remington-Rand worked on the NUIVAC. She took up the concept of reusable software in her 1952 paper entitled “The Education of a Computer” and developed the first software that could translate symbols of higher computer languages into machine language. (Compiler) 2.11 ARPANET – 1969 The Advanced Research Projects Agency was formed with an emphasis towards research, and thus was not oriented only to a military product. The formation of this agency was part of the U.S. reaction to the then Soviet Union’s launch of Sputnik in 1957. (ARPA draft, III-6). ARPA was assigned to research how to utilize their investment in computers via Command and Control Research (CCR). Dr. J.C.R. Licklider was chosen to head this effort. Developed for the US DoD Advanced Research Projects Agency 60,000 computers connected for communication among research organizations and universities 2.12 Intel 4004 – 1971 The 4004 was the world’s first universal microprocessor. In the late 1960s, many scientists had discussed the possibility of a computer on a chip, but nearly everyone felt that integrated circuit technology was not yet ready to support such a chip. Intel’s Ted Hoff felt differently; he was the first person to recognize that the new silicon-gated MOS technology might make a single-chip CPU (central processing unit) possible. Hoff and the Intel team developed such architecture with just over 2,300 transistors in an area of only 3 by 4 millimeters. With its 4-bit CPU, command register, decoder, decoding control, control monitoring of machine commands and interim register, the 4004 was one heck of a little invention. Today’s 64-bit microprocessors are still based on similar designs, and the microprocessor is still the most complex mass-produced product ever with more than 5.5 million transistors performing hundreds of millions of calculations each second – numbers that are sure to be outdated fast. 2.13 Altair 8800 – 1975 By 1975 the market for the personal computer was demanding a product that did not require an electrical engineering background and thus the first mass produced and marketed personal computer (available both as a kit or assembled) was welcomed with open arms. Developers Edward Roberts, William Yates and Jim Bybee spent 1973-1974 to develop the MITS (Micro Instruments Telemetry Systems ) Altair 8800. The price was $375, contained 256 bytes of memory (not 256k),but had no keyboard, no display, and no auxiliary storage device. Later, Bill Gates and Paul Allen wrote their first product for the Altair — a BASIC compiler (named after a planet on a Star Trek episode)

Cray 1 – 1 976 It looked like no other computer before, or for that matter, since. The Cray 1 was the world’s first “supercomputer,” a machine that leapfrogged existing technology when it was introduced in 1971. And back then, you couldn’t just order up fast processors from Intel. “There weren’t any microprocessors,” says Gwen Bell of The Computer Museum History Center. “These individual integrated circuits that are on the board performed different functions.” Each Cray 1, like this one at The Computer Museum History Center, took months to build. The hundreds of boards and thousands of wires had to fit just right. “It was really a hand-crafted machine,” adds Bell. “You think of all these wires as a kind of mess, but each one has a precise length.” 2.15 IBM PC – 1981 On August 12, 1981, IBM released their new computer, re-named the IBM PC. The “PC” stood for “personal computer” making IBM responsible for popularizing the term “PC”. The first IBM PC ran on a 4.77 MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor. The PC came equipped with 16 kilobytes of memory, expandable to 256k. The PC came with one or two 160k Floppy Disks Drives and an optional color monitor. The price tag started at $1,565, which would be nearly $4,000 today. 2.16 Apple Macintosh – 1984 Apple introduced the Macintosh to the nation on January 22, 1984. The original Macintosh had 128 kilobytes of RAM, although this first model was simply called “Macintosh” until the 512K model came out in September 1984. The Macintosh retailed for $2495. It wasn’t until the Macintosh that the general population really became aware of the mouse-driven graphical user interface. 2.17 World Wide Web -1989 “CERN is a meeting place for physicists from all over the world, who collaborate on complex physics, engineering and information handling projects. Thus, the need for the WWW system arose “from the geographical dispersion of large collaborations, and the fast turnover of fellows, students, and visiting scientists,” who had to get “up to speed on projects and leave a lasting contribution before leaving.” CERN possessed both the financial and computing resources necessary to start the project. In the original proposal, Berners-Lee outlined two phases of the project: First, CERN would “make use of existing software and hardware as well as implementing simple browsers for the user’s workstations, based on an analysis of the requirements for information access needs by experiments.” Second, they would “extend the application area by also allowing the users to add new material.” Berners-Lee expected each phase to take three months “with the full manpower complement”: he was asking for four software engineers and a programmer. The proposal talked about “a simple scheme to incorporate several different servers of machine-stored information already available at CERN.”

Set off in 1989, the WWW quickly gained great popularity among Internet users. For instance, at 11:22 am of April 12, 1995, the WWW server at the SEAS of the University of Pennsylvania “responded to 128 requests in one minute. Between 10:00 and 11:00 2.18 Quantum Computing with Molecules by Neil Gershenfeld and Isaac L. Chuang Factoring a number with 400 digits–a numerical feat needed to break some security codes–would take even the fastest supercomputer in existence billions of years. But a newly conceived type of computer, one that exploits quantum-mechanical interactions, might complete the task in a year or so, thereby defeating many of the most sophisticated encryption schemes in use. Sensitive data are safe for the time being, because no one has been able to build a practical quantum computer. But researchers have now demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. Such a computer would look nothing like the machine that sits on your desk; surprisingly, it might resemble the cup of coffee at its side. Several research groups believe quantum computers based on the molecules in a liquid might one day overcome many of the limits facing conventional computers. Roadblocks to improving conventional computers will ultimately arise from the fundamental physical bounds to miniaturization (for example, because transistors and electrical wiring cannot be made slimmer than the width of an atom). Or they may come about for practical reasons–most likely because the facilities for fabricating still more powerful microchips will become prohibitively expensive. Yet the magic of quantum mechanics might solve both these problems.

Lecture 3 Today’s Goal is to … Become familiar with the World Wide Web Become familiar with the Web’s structure and how the Web works Learn about its genesis, its evolution, and its future About its impact on computing, society, commerce 3.1 Browser A browser is an application program that provides a way to look at and interact with all the information on the World Wide Web. The word “browser” seems to have originated prior to the Web as a generic term for user interfaces that let you browse (navigate through and read) text files online. By the time the first Web browser with a graphical user interface was generally available (Mosaic, in 1993), the term seemed to apply to Web content, too. Technically, a Web browser is a client program that uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to make requests of Web servers throughout the Internet on behalf of the browser user. 3.2 URL URL (Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator) – pronounced YU-AHR-EHL or, in some quarters, UHRL – is the address of a file (resource) accessible on the Internet. The type of file or resource depends on the Internet application protocol. Using the World Wide Web’s protocol, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), the resource can be an HTML page (like the one you’re reading), an image file, or any other file supported by HTTP. The URL contains the name of the protocol required to access the resource, a domain name that identifies a specific computer on the Internet, and a pathname (hierarchical description of a file location) on the computer. On the Web (which uses the Hypertext Transfer Protocol), an example of a URL is: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt Which describes a Web page to be accessed with an HTTP (Web browser) application that is located on a computer named www.ietf.org. The pathname for the specific file in that computer is /rfc/rfc2396.txt. An HTTP URL can be for any Web page, not just a home page, or any individual file.

3.4 What is Home Page of a web site? 1) For a Web user, the home page is the first Web page that is displayed after starting a Web browser like Netscape’s Navigator or Microsoft’s Internet Explorer. The browser is usually preset so that the home page is the first page of the browser manufacturer. However, you can set it to open to any Web site. For example, you can specify that “http://www.yahoo.com” or “http://whatis.com” be your home page. You can also specify that there be no home page (a blank space will be displayed) in which case you choose the first page from your bookmark list or enter a Web address. 2) For a Web site developer, a home page is the first page presented when a user selects a site or presence on the World Wide Web. The usual address for a Web site is the home page address, although you can enter the address (Uniform Resource Locator) of any page and have that page sent to you. 3.5 Who invented the Web & Why? “CERN is a meeting place for physicists from all over the world, who collaborate on complex physics, engineering and information handling projects. Thus, the need for the WWW system arose “from the geographical dispersion of large collaborations, and the fast turnover of fellows, students, and visiting scientists,” who had to get “up to speed on projects and leave a lasting contribution before leaving.” CERN possessed both the financial and computing resources necessary to start the project. In the original proposal, Berners-Lee outlined two phases of the project: First, CERN would “make use of existing software and hardware as well as implementing simple browsers for the user’s workstations, based on an analysis of the requirements for information access needs by experiments.” Second, they would “extend the application area by also allowing the users to add new material.” Berners-Lee expected each phase to take three months “with the full manpower complement”: he was asking for four software engineers and a programmer. The proposal talked about “a simple scheme to incorporate several different servers of machine-stored information already available at CERN.”

Set off in 1989, the WWW quickly gained great popularity among Internet users. For instance, at 11:22 am of April 12, 1995, the WWW server at the SEAS of the University of Pennsylvania “responded to 128 requests in one minute. Between 10:00 and 11:00 3.6 Future of the Web: Semantic Web The Semantic Web is an idea of World Wide Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee that the Web as a whole can be made more intelligent and perhaps even intuitive about how to serve a user’s needs. Berners-Lee observes that although search engines index much of the Web’s content, they have little ability to select the pages that a user really wants or needs. He foresees a number of ways in which developers and authors, singly or in collaborations, can use self-descriptions and other techniques so that contextunderstanding programs can selectively find what users want. 3.7 Useful Web page Web page for our “Understanding Computers” text book http://www.hbcollege.com/infosys/parker2000 What have we learnt today? What is the World Wide Web? How does it work? About its expected evolution into the Semantic Web The impact of the Web on computing, society, and commerce

Lecture 4 Today’s Goal To learn to classify computers according to their capability and targeted applications To find out about the essential building blocks that make up a modern computer Computer Types According to Capability 4.1 Computer Types According to Capability 4.2 Supercomputers A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. A supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both). At any given time, there are usually a few well-publicized supercomputers that operate at the very latest and always incredible speeds. Perhaps the best-known builder of supercomputers has been Cray Research, now a part of Silicon Graphics. Some supercomputers are at “supercomputer center,” usually university research centers, some of which, in the United States, are interconnected on an Internet backbone (A backbone is a larger transmission line that carries data gathered from smaller lines that interconnect with it) known as vBNS or NSFNet. At the high end of supercomputing are computers like IBM’s “Blue Pacific,” announced on October 29, 1998. Built in partnership with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory operations per second), 15,000 times faster than the average personal computer. It consists of 5,800 processors containing a total of 2.6 trillion bytes of memory and interconnected with five miles of cable. 4.3 Mainframe Computers A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts with a simple microprocessor (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves to supercomputers at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers. In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they support more simultaneous programs. But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague (not clearly expressed), depending really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines. 4.4 Servers / Minicomputers A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations and mainframes. In the past decade, the distinction between large minicomputers and small mainframes has blurred, however, as has the distinction between small minicomputers and workstations. But in general, a minicomputer is a multiprocessing system capable of supporting from 4 to about 200 users simultaneously. 4.5 Desktops These are also called microcomputers. Low-end desktops are called PC’s and high-end ones “Workstations”. These are generally consisting of a single processor only, some times 2, along with MB’s of memory, and GB’s of storage. PC’s are used for running productivity applications, Web surfing, messaging. Workstations are used for more demanding tasks like low-end 3-D simulations and other engineering & scientific apps. These are not as reliable and fault-tolerant as servers. Workstations cost a few thousand dollars; PC around a $1000. 4.6 Portables Portable computer is a personal computer that is designed to be easily transported and relocated, but is larger and less convenient to transport than a notebook computer. The earliest PCs designed for easy transport were called portables. As the size and weight of most portables decreased, they became known as laptop computer and later as notebook computer. Today, larger transportable computers continue to be called portable computers. Most of these are special-purpose computers – for example, those for use in industrial environments where they need to be moved about frequently.

PDA (personal digital assistant) is a term for any small mobile hand-held device that provides computing and information storage and retrieval capabilities for personal or business use, often for keeping schedule calendars and address book information handy. The term handheld is a synonym. Many people use the name of one of the popular PDA products as a generic term. These include Hewlett-Packard’s Palmtop and 3Com’s PalmPilot. Most PDAs have a small keyboard. Some PDAs have an electronically sensitive pad on which handwriting can be received. Apple’s Newton, which has been withdrawn from the market, was the first widely-sold PDA that accepted handwriting. Typical uses include schedule and address book storage and retrieval and note-entering. However, many applications have been written for PDAs. Increasingly, PDAs are combined with telephones and paging systems. Some PDAs offer a variation of the Microsoft Windows operating system called Windows CE. Other products have their own or another operating system. 4.7 Ranking w.r.t. installed number PC’s PDA’s Workstations Servers Wearable (picture is provided) Mainframes Supercomputers At the highest level, two things are required for computing Hardware Computer equipment such as a CPU, disk drives, CRT, or printer Software A computer program, which provides the instructions which enable the computer hardware to work 4.8 All computers have the following essential hardware components: Input The devices used to give the computer data or commands are called Input devices. Includes keyboard, mouse, scanner, etc Processor A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. The term processor has generally replaced the term central processing unit (CPU). The processor in a personal computer or embedded in small devices is often called a microprocessor. Short for microprocessor, the central processing unit in a computer. The processor is the logic of a computer and functions comparably to a human central nervous system, directing signals from one component to another and enabling everything to happen Memory Memory is the electronic holding place for instructions and data that your computer’s microprocessor can reach quickly. When your computer is in normal operation, its memory usually contains the main parts of the operating system and some or all of the application programs and related data that are being used. Memory is often used as a shorter synonym for random access memory (RAM). This kind of memory is located on one or more microchips that are physically close to the microprocessor in your computer. Most desktop and notebook computers sold today include at least 16 megabytes of RAM, and are upgradeable to include more. The more RAM you have, the less frequently the computer has to access instructions and data from the more slowly accessed hard disk form of storage. Memory is also called primary or main memory. Storage

Computer storage is the holding of data in an electromagnetic form for access by a computer processor. It is also called secondary storage. In secondary storage data resides on hard disks, tapes, and other external devices. Primary storage is much faster to access than secondary storage because of the proximity of the storage to the processor or because of the nature of the storage devices. On the other hand, secondary storage can hold much more data than primary storage. Output The devices to which the computer writes data are called Output devices. Often converts the data into a human readable form. Monitor and printer are output devices. 4.9 Input Devices Mouse A mouse is a small device that a computer user pushes across a desk surface in order to point to a place on a display screen and to select one or more actions to take from that position. The mouse first became a widely-used computer tool when Apple Computer made it a standard part of the Apple Macintosh. Today, the mouse is an integral part of the graphical user interface (GUI) of any personal computer. The mouse apparently got its name by being about the same size and color as a toy mouse. Keyboard On most computers, a keyboard is the primary text input device. A keyboard on a computer is almost identical to a keyboard on a typewriter. Computer keyboards will typically have extra keys, however. Some of these keys (common examples include Control, Alt, and Meta) are meant to be used in conjunction with other keys just like shift on a regular typewriter. Other keys (common examples include Insert, Delete, Home, End, Help, function keys, etc.) are meant to be used independently and often perform editing tasks. Joystick In computers, a joystick is a cursor control device used in computer games. The joystick, which got its name from the control stick used by a pilot to control the ailerons and elevators of an airplane, is a hand-held lever that pivots on one end and transmits its coordinates to a computer. It often has one or more push-buttons, called switches, whose position can also be read by the computer. Digital Camera A digital camera records and stores photographic images in digital form that can be fed to a computer as the impressions are recorded or stored in the camera for later loading into a computer or printer. Currently, Kodak, Canon, and several other companies make digital cameras. Microphone A device that converts sound waves into audio signals. These could be used for sound recording as well as voice chatting through internet. Scanner A scanner is a device that captures images from photographic prints, posters, magazine pages, and similar sources for computer editing and display. Scanners come in hand-held, feed-in, and flatbed types and for scanning black-and-white only, or color. Very high resolution scanners are used for scanning for high-resolution printing, but lower

resolution scanners are adequate for capturing images for computer display. Scanners usually come with software, such as Adobe’s Photoshop product, that lets you resize and otherwise modify a captured image 4.10 What is Port? On computer and telecommunication devices, a port (noun) is generally a specific place for being physically connected to some other device, usually with a socket and plug of some kind. Typically, a personal computer is provided with one or more serial ports and usually one parallel port. 4.11Many Types of Ports Parallel An interface on a computer that supports transmission of multiple bits at the same time; almost exclusively used for connecting a printer. On IBM or compatible computers, the parallel port uses a 25-pin connector. Serial It is a general-purpose personal computer communications port in which 1 bit of information is transferred at a time. In the past, most digital cameras were connected to a computer’s serial port in order to transfer images to the computer. Recently, however, the serial port is being replaced by the much faster USB port on digital cameras as well as computers. SCSI A port that’s faster than the serial and parallel ports but slower and harder to configure than the newer USB port. Also know as the Small Computer System Interface. A high-speed connection that enables devices, such as hard-disk drives and network adapters, to be attached to a computer. USB USB (Universal Serial Bus) is a plug-and-play hardware interface for peripherals such as the keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner, printer and modem. USB has a maximum bandwidth of 12 Mbits/sec and up to 127 devices can be attached. With USB, a new device can be added to your computer without having to add an adapter card. It typically is located at the back of the PC Firewire FireWire is simply a really fast port that lets you connect computer peripherals and consumer electronics to your computer without the need to restart. It is a simple common plug-in serial connector on the back of your computer. It has the ability to chain devices together in a number of different ways without terminators for example, simply join 2 computers with a FireWire cable for instant highspeed networking. 4.12 Processor Pentium Celeron Athlon PowerPC StrongARM (PDA) Crusoe (Laptops) SPARC (Workstations) 4.13 Memory/Storage RAM RAM (random access memory) is the place in a computer where the operating system, application programs, and data in current use are kept so that they can be quickly reached by the computer’s processor. RAM is much faster to read from and write to than the other kinds of storage in a computer, the hard disk, floppy disk, and CD-ROM. However, the data in RAM stays there only as long as your computer is running. When you turn the computer off, RAM loses its data. When you turn your computer on again, your operating system and other files are once again loaded into RAM, usually from your hard disk.

Punch cards A card on which data can be recorded in the form of punched holes. ROM ROM is “built-in” computer memory containing data that normally can only be read, not written to. ROM contains the programming that allows your computer to be “booted up” or regenerated each time you turn it on. Unlike a computer’s random access memory (RAM), the data in ROM is not lost when the computer power is turned off. The ROM is sustained by a small long-life battery in your computer. Hard disk Hard disk is a computer storage device which saves and retrieves the data when required. Its capacity is much greater than the computer memory (RAM, ROM). Data on hard disk is stored and retrieved from electromagnetically charged surface. Today we can save huge amount of data on a single hard disk. Now hard disks can contain several billion bytes. Floppy disk A diskette is a random access, removable data storage medium that can be used with personal computers. The term usually refers to the magnetic medium housed in a rigid plastic cartridge measuring 3.5 inches square and about 2 millimeters thick. Also called a “3.5-inch diskette,” it can store up to 1.44 megabytes (MB) of data. Tape In computers, tape is an external storage medium, usually both readable and writable, can store data in the form of electromagnetic charges that can be read and also erased. A tape drive is the device that positions, writes from, and reads to the tape. CD A compact disc [sometimes spelled disk] (CD) is a small, portable, round medium for electronically recording, storing, and playing back audio, video, text, and other information in digital form. DVD DVD (digital versatile disc) is an optical disc technology that is expected to rapidly replace the CD-ROM disc (as well as the audio compact disc) over the next few years. The digital versatile disc (DVD) holds 4.7 gigabyte of information on one of its two sides, or enough for a 133-minute movie. 4.14 Classifying Memory/Storage Electronic (RAM, ROM), magnetic (HD, FD, Tape), optical (CD, DVD) Volatile (RAM), non-volatile (HD) Direct access (RAM, HD), serial access (Tape) Read/write (HD, RAM), read-only (CD) 4.15 Output Devices Printer Plotter Speakers Monitor 4.16 Modem Modem is output as well as input device at the same time. It receives the data (analog signal) coming through telephone line, converts them to digital signals and sends them to

computer to which it is attached. It also receives the data from computer and changes it to analog signals. What have we learnt today? What are the various types of computers with respect to their size, capability, applications (FIVE TYPES) The five essential components of any computer are input devices, processor, memory, storage and output devices

Lecture 5 Today’s goal is quite simple … To learn about the various components of the popular personnel computer. How those things are put together to form a PC 5.1 PC Parts Monitor Keyboard Mouse Speaker/headphone Microphone CPU Front buttons Backside ports, fan, slots, cables 5.2 Inside of the CPU Power supply/fan & connectors Motherboard Bus Edge connectors Ports Video card Modem Network card Sound card ROM RAM Slots DIMM’s 5.3 The Processor Module The slot on the motherboard The housing Fan Heat sink Pins (256?), Transistors (10 million?)

Lecture 7 Goals for Today Today we want to learn about the microprocessor, the key component, the brain, of a computer We’ll learn about the function of a microprocessor And its various sub-systems Bus interface unit Data & instruction cache memory Instruction decoder Arithmetic-Logic unit Floating-point unit Control unit 7.1 Microprocessor A microprocessor (abbreviated as µP or uP) is a computer processor on a microchip. It’s sometimes called a logic chip. A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called registers. Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting, comparing two numbers, and fetching numbers from one area to another. These operations are the result of a set of instructions that are part of the microprocessor design. When the computer is turned on, the microprocessor is designed to get the first instruction from the basic input/output system (BIOS) that comes with the computer as part of its memory. After that, either the BIOS, or the operating system that BIOS loads into computer memory, or an application program is “driving” the microprocessor, giving it instructions to perform. The number of transistors available has a huge effect on the performance of a processor. As seen earlier, a typical instruction in a processor like an 8088 took 15 clock cycles to execute. Because of the design of the multiplier, it took approximately 80 cycles just to do one 16-bit multiplication on the 8088. With more transistors, much more powerful multipliers capable of single-cycle speeds become possible. A microprocessor is made from miniaturized transistors and other circuit elements on a silicon. 7.2 Integrated Circuits A chip is also called an (integrated circuit (IC) (aka microchip or just chip). It is a microelectronic semiconductor device consisting of many interconnected transistors and other components.Generally it is a small, thin piece of silicon onto which the transistors making up the microprocessor have been etched. A chip might be as large as an inch on a side and can contain tens of millions of transistors. Simpler processors might consist of a few thousand transistors etched onto a chip just a few millimeters square. Integrated circuits can be classified into analog, digital and mixed signal (both analog and digital on the same chip). Digital integrated circuits can contain anything from one to millions of logic gates, flip-flops, multiplexers, etc. in a few square millimeters. The small size of these circuits allows high speed, low power dissipation, and reduced manufacturing cost compared with board-level integration. The growth of complexity of integrated circuits follows a trend called “Moore’s Law”, it states that the number of transistors in an integrated circuit doubles every two years.

The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device used for amplification and switching, and has three terminals. A small current or voltage applied to one terminal controls the current through the other two, hence the term transistor; a voltage- or current-controlled resistor. It is the key component in all modern electronics. In digital circuits, transistors are used as very fast electrical switches, and arrangements of transistors can function as logic gates, RAM-type memory and other devices. In analog circuits, transistors are essentially used as amplifiers. 7.3.2 Diodes A diode functions as the electronic version of a one-way valve. By restricting the direction of movement of charge carriers, it allows an electric current to flow in one direction, but blocks it in the opposite direction. A diode’s current-voltage, or I-V, characteristic can be approximated by two regions of operation. Below a certain difference in potential between the two leads, the diode can be thought of as an open (non-conductive) circuit. As the potential difference is increased, at some stage the diode will become conductive and allow current to flow, at which point it can be thought of as a connection with zero (or at least very low) resistance. In a typical semiconductor p-n diode, conventional current can flow from the p-doped side to the n-doped side, but not in the opposite direction. When the diode is reverse-biased, the charge carriers are pulled away from the center of the device, creating a depletion region. More specifically, the transfer function is logarithmic, but so sharp that it looks like a corner. 7.3.3 Resistors A resistor is an electrical component designed to have an electrical resistance that is independent of the current flowing through it. The common type of resistor is also designed to be independent of temperature and other factors. Resistors may be fixed or variable. Variable resistors are also called potentiometers or rheostats A few resistor types Some resistors are long and thin, with the actual resisting material in the centre, and a conducting metal leg on each end. This is called an axial package. Resistors used in computers and other devices are typically much smaller, often in surfacemount (Surface-mount technology) packages without leads. Larger power resistors come in more sturdy packages designed to dissipate heat efficiently, but they are all basically the same structure. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and incorporated into microelectronic semiconductor devices. The critical measurement of a resistor is its resistance, which serves as a ratio of voltage to current and is measured in ohms, an SI unit. Any physical object is a kind of resistor. Most metals are conductors, and have low resistance to the flow of electricity. The human body, a piece of plastic, or even a vacuum has a resistance that can be measured. Materials that have very high resistance are called insulators. 7.3.4 Capacitors A capacitor (historically known as a “condenser”) is a device that stores energy in an electric field, by accumulating an internal imbalance of electric charge. An ideal capacitor can store electronic energy when disconnected from its charging circuit, so it can be used like a fast battery. In AC or signal circuits it induces a phase difference of 90 degrees, current leading potential. They are connected in parallel with the power circuits of most electronic devices and larger systems (such as factories) to shunt away and conceal current fluctuations from the primary power source to provide a “clean” power supply for signal or control circuits. The effect of such capacitors can be thought of in two different ways. One way of thinking about it is that the capacitors act as a local reserve for the DC power source, to smooth out fluctuations by charging and discharging each cycle. The other way to think about it is that the capacitor and resistance of the power supply circuitry acts as a filter and removes high frequencies, leaving only DC.

Silicon – semiconductor Copper – conductor Silicon Dioxide – insulator 7.4 Microprocessor system Microprocessors are powerful pieces of hardware, but not much useful on their own. They do not have the sense of their own. Like the human sample it needs some instructions inputs and outputs to process some task. As per instruction given to the microprocessor. A microprocessor system is microprocessor plus all the components it requires to do a certain task. Shortly, a microprocessor needs help of some components to make up the task to fulfill. These components are input, output, storage, and memory. All these components and microprocessor make up a microprocessor system. Personal Computer is an example of microprocessor System. Another example is the microcontroller. 7.5 Micro-controllers A microcontroller is a microprocessor optimised to be used to control electronic equipment. Microcontrollers represent the vast majority of all computer chips sold, over 50% are “simple” controllers, and another 20% are more specialized decipline processors. While you may have one or two general-purpose microprocessors in your house (you’re using one to read this), you likely have somewhere between one and two dozen microcontrollers. They can be found in almost any electrical device, washing machines, microwave ovens, telephones etc. A microcontroller includes CPU, memory for the program (ROM), memory for data (RAM), I/O lines to communicate with peripherals and complementary resources, all this in a closed chip. A microcontroller differs from a standalone CPU, because the first one generally is quite easy to make into a working computer, with a minimum of external support chips. The idea is that the microcontroller will be placed in the device to control, hooked up to power and any information it needs, and that’s that. 7.6 The Main Memory Bottleneck Modern super-fast microprocessors can process a huge amount of data in a short duration. They need data to be processed at the same speed. Other wise they have to sit idle and wait for the input/data, because speed of input is rather small then processing of data. They require quick access to data to maximize their performance. If they don’t receive the data that they require, they literally stop and wait, this results in reduced performance and wasted power. Current microprocessors can process an instruction in about ns (nanosecond). Time required for fetching data from main memory (RAM) is of the order of 100 ns Solution to the Bottleneck Problem In order to eliminate the solution it was suggested to make the main memory faster. But that evolved a problem that the 1-ns memory is extremely expensive as compared the currently popular 100-ns memory. Finally it was decided that in addition to the relatively slow main memory, put a small amount of ultra-fast RAM right next to the microprocessor on the same chip and make sure that frequently used data and instructions resides in that ultra-fast memory It increases the performance. It supports better over performance due to fast access to frequently used data and instructions. 7.7 Cache A cache is a collection of duplicate data, where the original data is expensive to fetch or compute (usually in terms of access time) relative to the cache. Future accesses to the data can be made by accessing the cached copy rather than refetching or recomputing the original data, so that the perceived average access time is lower. Caches may mark the cached data as ‘stale’ when the original data is changed, but this is not always the case.

On-Chip Cache Memory (1) That small amount of memory located on the same chip as the microprocessor is called On-Chip Cache Memory. The microprocessor stores a copy of frequently used data and instructions in its cache memory. When the microprocessor desires to look at a piece of data, it checks in the cache first. If it is not there, only then the microprocessor asks for the same from the main memory On-Chip Cache Memory (2) L2, cache memory, which is on a separate chip from the microprocessor but faster to access than regular RAM. It is the small size and proximity to the microprocessor makes access times short, resulting in a boost in performance. Microprocessors predict what data will be required for future calculations and it pre-fetches that data and places it in the cache so that it is available immediately when the need arises. 7.8 Microprocessors Building Blocks Bus Interface Unit The bus interface unit is the part of the processor that interfaces with the rest of the PC. Its name comes from the fact that it deals with moving information over the processor data bus, the primary conduit for the transfer of information to and from the CPU. The bus interface unit is responsible for responding to all signals that go to the processor, and generating all signals that go from the processor to other parts of the system. It receives instructions & data from main memory to be processed and operations. After the operations are processed it then sends back the information (processed data) to the cache. It also receives the processed data to send it to the main memory. Instruction Decoder The instruction decoder of a processor is a combinatorial circuit sometimes in the form of a read-only memory, sometimes in the form of an ordinary combinatorial circuit. Its purpose is to translate an instruction code into the address in the micro memory where the micro code for the instruction starts.

A decoder is a device which is the reverse, undoing the encoding so that the original information can be retrieved. The same method used to encode is usually just reversed in order to decode.This unit receives the programming instructions and decodes them into a form that is understandable by the processing units, i.e. The ALU or FPU Then, it passes on the decoded instruction to the ALU or FPUs as desired. Arithmetic & Logic Unit (ALU) An arithmetic and logical unit (ALU) also known as “Integer Unit” is one of the core components of all central processing units. It is capable of calculating the results of a wide variety of common computations. The most common available operations are the integer arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication, the bitwise logic operations of AND, NOT, OR, and XOR, and various shift operations. The ALU takes as inputs the data to be operated on and a code from the control unit indicating which operation to perform, and for output provides the result of the computation. In some designs it may also take as input and output a set of condition codes, which can be used to indicate cases such as carry-in or carry-out, overflow, or other statuses. The new breed of popular microprocessors have not one but two almost identical ALU’s that can do calculations simultaneously, doubling the capability Floating-Point Unit (FPU) A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a CPU specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. Typical operations are floating point arithmetic (such as addition and multiplication), but some systems may be capable of performing exponential or trigonometric calculations as well (such as square roots or cosines). Not all CPUs have a dedicated FPU. In the absence of an FPU, the CPU may use a microcode program to emulate an FPUs function using an arithmetic and logical unit (ALU), which saves the added hardware cost of an FPU but is significantly slower. In some computer architectures, floating point operations are handled completely separate from integer operations, with dedicated floating point registers and independent clocking schemes. Floating point addition and multiplication operations are typically pipelined, but more complicated operations, like division, may not be, and some systems may even have a dedicated floating point divider circuit. Registers A register is a device for storing data. It is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values. These registers are the top of the memory hierarchy, and are the fastest way for the system to manipulate data. It is common to measure registers by the number of bits it can hold, for example, an “8-bit register” or “32-bit register”. Registers are now usually implemented as an array of SRAMs, but they have also been implemented using individual flip flops, high speed core memory, thin film memory, and other ways in various machines. There are several other classes of registers: Data registers are used to store integer numbers. Address registers hold memory addresses and are used to access memory. General Purpose registers can store both data and addresses. Floating Point registers are used to store floating point numbers. Constant registers hold read-only values (e.g zero or one). Vector registers hold data for Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) instructions. Special Purpose registers which store internal CPU data like the stack pointer or processor status words. The ALU & FPU store intermediate and final results from their calculations in these registers. Then the processed data goes back to the data cache and then to main memory from these registers. Control Unit


ENG201 Book

LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS & TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION Outline • Introduction to Business & Technical Communication • Books & Materials • Modules • Importance of Business & Technical Communication • Types of Communication Introduction to Business & Technical Communication The main objective of this course is to equip the students with skills that will enable them to communicate clearly and concisely in diverse business situations. The students will learn the importance of planning and organizing effective written messages. The course is divided into two sections: 1. Written Communication 2. Oral Communication Written communication will cover planning, structures, and stylistic issues. The students will learn to write memos and letters, proposals, short and long reports, and procedure & policy documents. Moreover, the students will learn to simplify complex information through editing and revising for enhancing their ability to create powerful documents to sell their ideas. The oral communication section will cover planning and execution of effective presentations; group behavior, planning and conducting effective meetings.

Modules Module 1: Basics of Effective Technical and Business Communication Module 2: Forms of Written Communication: Reports, Proposals, Letters, Memos, Applications, Resumes, Instructions, and Specification documents. Module 3: Research &Writing Module 4: Oral Communication Importance of Business & Technical Communication Learning ‘Business & Technical Communication’ helps a person to identify different roles at workplace. For instance, you will need to identify your two roles at work. As a specialist, youneed to generate ideas which will be potentially useful. Secondly, you need to share the results of your ideas with co-workers, customers, etc. as a communicator. Example Naila, a newly hired dietitian, must communicate to make the work valuable to her employer, at a large hospital. She has devised a way to reorganize the hospital kitchen that saves money, etc. Her insights will benefit the hospital only if they are communicated to someone who has the power to implement them, such as the kitchen director. Writing is critical to your success. As a college graduate, you will need to spend an average of 20 percent of your time at work writing. That comes out to one out of every five-day work week. A graph plotted for percentage of hours spent versus the number of people who responded for the survey. The study was conducted for a total number of 896 students in the US Universities. Besides enabling you to do your job, writing well can bring you many personal benefits as well: • Recognition in the form of praise • Raises • Promotions In many organizations, the communication with the upper management is not feasible. In such a company, your memos, reports, and other writings may be the only evidence. They only have specimens of your good written work as either a specialist or a communicator. Writing is an important responsibility of mangers who have to communicate a wide variety of messages to those working above and below them. Consequently, employers look for writings when considering people for advancement.

In a study, 94 percent of the graduates from seven departments that send students to technical writing classes reported that the ability to “write well” is of “some” importance to them. Furthermore, 58 percent said that it is of great or critical importance to them. In a survey of people listed in the “Engineers of distinction”, 89 percent said that the writing ability is considered when a person is considered for advancement. Survey of people listed in the “Engineers of distinction” plotting the importance of writing skills to people versus the number of people who responded. In addition to bringing you recognition, writing well at work can bring you personal satisfaction too. It will enable you to make an important impact. To succeed in any endeavors during your professional career, you will need to influence people’s opinions, actions and decisions mostly through your writing skills. Writing at work differs from writing at school To write successfully at work, you will need to develop new writing skills and even new ways of thinking about writing. That’s because writing at work place differs in some very fundamental ways from writing done at school. Purposes of Writing As a student, you communicate for educational purposes, for example, writing term papers or taking a written exam, etc. In contrast, as an employee, you will communicate for instrumental purposes. Most of your communications will be designed to help your employer achieve practical business objectives. At school, where your aim is to show how much you know, one of your major writing strategies is to write as much as you can about your subject. At work, your communications should only include the information your readers need. Extra information would only clog your readers’ path resulting in: o decreased efficiency

o increased frustration Audience • At school your interaction is only with one person, the instructor. In contrast at work, you will often create communications that will address a wide variety of people with different backgrounds. • The use they will make of your information. • The kinds of professional and personal concerns they will bring to your presentation. Example Consider the report in which Naila will present her recommendations for improving the hospital kitchen. Her recommendations might be read by her supervisor Mr. Nadeem who will want to know what measures he will have to take in order to follow her recommendations. The vice president of finance, Mr. Altaf, will want to verify the cost estimates that Naila includes. The director of purchasing, Mr. Chauhan, will need to know about the new equipment he will need to order. The head of personnel, Miss Sara, will want to learn whether she needs to write any new job descriptions. And lastly, to assure the kitchen staff that their new work assignment will treat them fairly. So, writing for such a large and diverse audience requires skills that are not needed when writing only to your instructor. Types of Communication People at work write different types of writing for communication than those written at schools. Instead of term papers and exams, they write such things as:

Memos • Business letters • Instructions • Project proposals • Progress reports Each on-the-job communication has its own conventions. To write successfully at work, you will need to learn how to construct these kinds of communication. Ownership Ownership of a writer’s work is very important. While at school your communication only belongs to you, at work however, your communication will belong only partly to you. It will belong to your employer. What you write at work represents not only you but also your department or your employer. Example If you write a letter or report to a customer, the customer views it as an official communication from your employer. If you write a proposal, your employer will get the contract or lose it. Two other situations are fairly common at work. Employees often work on committees that write reports, proposals, and other documents collaboratively. The final version cannot be accredited to only one individual. People often write communication that is sent under someone else’s name. It is common for departmental reports to be signed by the Head of Department, even though they are written by the staff members. To succeed in a job, you will need to learn to write under the circumstances in which your employer claims ownership of your communication. It is absolutely essential to think constantly about your readers. • Think about what they want from you and why? • Think about the ways you want to affect them. • Think about the ways they will react to what you have to say. • Think about them as if they were right there in front of you while you talked together. The communication must affect the individual people you are addressing in specific ways. Example If Naila’s proposal of modifying the hospital kitchen explains the problems created by the present organization in a way that her readers find compelling, if it addresses the kinds of objections that her readers can relate to, if it reduces the reader’s sense of being threatened by suggesting improvements to a system that they set up, then it may succeed.

On the other hand, if Naila’s proposal leaves the readers confused, and fails to persuade them, it will make Naila seem like a pushy person who has overstepped her appropriate role. As you write in a professional environment, you need to remember three things: 1. Readers create meaning. 2. Readers’ responses are sharpened by the situation. 3. Readers react on a moment-by-moment basis. Readers create Meaning Instead of receiving the message, people interact with the message to create meaning. While reading, we build larger structures of knowledge from small fragments of sentences. These structures are not the words we have just read but our own creation. Readers’ responses are shaped by the situation Responses to a communication are shaped by a total situation surrounding the message such as the readers’ purpose of reading, their perceptions of the writer’s aims, their personal interests and stake in the subject discussed, and their past relations, if any, with the writer. Readers react on a moment-to-moment basis On job, people react to each part of the memo, report or other business communication as soon as they come to it. Exercises 1. Find a communication written by someone who has the kind of job you want. Explain its purpose from various points of view of both the writer and the readers. Describe some of the writing strategies the writer has used to achieve those purposes. 2. Find a piece of writing that you believe to be ineffective. (You might look for an unclear set of instructions or an unpersuasive advertisement of some business or a technical product.) Write a brief analysis of three or four “reading moments” in which your interaction with the text is in a way that inhibits the author’s desired results. 3. Now analyze an effective piece of writing. This time, write about three or four “reading moments” in which you interact with the text in a way that helps the author bring about the desired result.

LESSON 2 ORAL COMMUNICATION Outline • Types of Oral communication • Modes of Delivery o Extempore o Impromptu o Memorization o Reading • Preparation and Delivery of a Presentation • Delivery Guidelines • Using Visual Aids Types of Communication Oral Presentations Oral presentations can be formal or informal depending upon their explicit and implicit purposes and the delivery situation. An oral presentation can be almost any report type such as a design review, a proposal, or a conference talk. Whatever the specific type, however, an effective oral presentation is carefully planned with your objectives in mind and pays close attention to the demands of your audience. Effective oral communication is a combination of many skills: • outlining and planning • preparing overheads or other display media

• rehearsing • delivery Formal and Informal Oral Reports An oral report may be delivered around a small table with just a few listeners or in a large auditorium to hundreds of people. Formal oral reports are usually prepared well in advance of presentation and are, therefore, well-rehearsed. Your manner of delivery is extremely important in a formal oral report situation. Formal oral reports may follow an outline similar to the parts of any formal written report and may be presented to an audience of one’s peers or to an interested general or mixed audience in a setting such as a large auditorium or hall. Informal oral reports are generally characterized by small-group settings with a high degree of audience interaction and a relaxed manner of delivery and dress. Informal oral presentations can foster the free exchange of ideas and can be important for producing action items. Oral presentations in a professional environment generally fall into two categories: • Informative speaking • Persuasive speaking a. Informative Speaking Informative Speaking has audience learning as its primary goal. An informative speech may explain a concept, instruct an audience, demonstrate a process, or describe an event. In a professional setting, the informative speech may take many different forms: • Individual or Group Report • Oral Briefing • Panel Discussion • Oral Critique b. Persuasive Speaking Persuasive Speaking is used to influence what an audience thinks or does. Some of the goals of persuasive speaking include: • To reinforce the attitudes, beliefs, and values an audience already holds • To inoculate an audience against counter persuasion • To change attitudes • To motivate an audience to act Delivery Methods There are at least four methods for making an oral presentation: 1. Extempore 2. Impromptu

3. Memorization 4. Reading Extempore In this method of delivery, the thought is planned before starting to speak, either in a few hurried minutes or in the course of long, elaborate and exacting preparation, but the exact wording is left to the moment of speaking. The extemporaneous method involves significant effort but results in a degree of quality that tells your audience that you care about them. • It requires the detailed laying out of the presentation from beginning to end. • Doing your homework to fill in your knowledge gaps. • The use of 3 x 5 cue cards or similar method to jog your memory on specifics and keep your presentation on track. Impromptu The impromptu speech is given without any advance preparation, any notes or other additional materials; it is a spontaneous reaction to the topic at hand which may introduce an interesting turn to the discussion. Memorization A memorized speech is a speech that is recited from memory rather than read from cue cards or using the assistance of notes. This method of speech delivery does not come as highly recommended as other methods. The memorization method is risky; you can lose your place or leave something out and, in a panic, you might revert to the impromptu method, resulting in disaster. Reading The drawback of reading is that when you read your speech, you are communicating with the text instead of the audience. Novice speakers often believe that if they memorize their speeches by reading them over and over word for word, they will be able to stand up and deliver the speech verbatim without reading. It is a great idea but it just does not work. If you practice by reading from a written manuscript, you will become so devoted to the paper that it will be virtually impossible to break away from it. You also lose most of the expressiveness and engaging body language that make speeches work in the first place. Preparation of the presentation Irrespective of the method of delivery, the presenter must consider the following parameters in preparing for the presentation: • knowledge of the audience • knowledge of subject • use of time • rehearsal

• personal appearance and grooming Additionally, the preparation and use of visual aids is an important element of any effective presentation. a. Knowledge of the Audience You should know about your audience’s pre-existing knowledge. Know the age level of the audience as well as its members’ level of educational sophistication and special interests. Then tailor your presentation accordingly. b. Knowledge of the Subject Whether you use notes, manuscript, or strictly memory, you must know your subject well. If gaps exist, you should fill them up. c. Use of Time and Rehearsal Time limits are to be observed. Even if no time limit is given, you should strive to do justice to your subject in as little time as possible but not at the price of an incomplete presentation. d. Personal Appearance Your personal appearance affects your credibility. Informal clothing is rarely appropriate for a professional presentation. Pay significant attention to personal grooming. Delivering an Oral Presentation A well planned and well-structured presentation can almost be ineffective because of bad presentation delivery. Keep in mind the following factors: • Poise and Enthusiasm • Eye Contact • Use of Voice • Use of Time a. Poise and Enthusiasm Be well prepared and strive for muscular control, alert attention, vibrant interest in the subject, and an eagerness to communicate. Avoid distracting mannerisms, but don’t stand in a “frozen” position. Moving about, if not excessive, can accentuate your enthusiasm. b. Eye Contact During your presentation, try to make eye contact with most of the people and, if possible, every person in the room. Avoid fastening your gaze on your notes, on your chart or screen, or on some point in space above the heads of your listeners. c. Use of Voice Don’t speak too soft, too fast, or mumble. Your audience must be able to: • hear what you say • understand what you say

d. Use of Pace Without adequate preparation, it is easy to become nervous and start rushing through a presentation. Instead, use the pacing established during your many rehearsals. Making a Formal Presentation The material of your presentation should be concise, to the point, and tell an interesting story. In addition to the obvious things like content and visual aids, the following are just as important as the audience will be subconsciously taking them in: • Voice – how you say it is as important as what you say. • Body language – a subject in its own right and something about which much has been written and said. In essence, your body movements express what your attitudes and thoughts really are. • Appearance – first impressions influence the audience’s attitudes to you. Dress appropriately for the occasion. As is the case with most personal skills, oral communication cannot be taught. Instructors can only point the way. So as always, practice is essential both to improve your skills generally and also to make the best of each individual presentation you make. Preparation Prepare the structure of the talk carefully and logically just as you would for a written report. Keep in mind: • the objectives of the talk • the main points of the talk Make a list of these two things as your starting point. Write out the presentation in rough, just like a first draft of a written report. Review the draft. You will find things that are irrelevant or superfluous – delete them. Check that the story is consistent and flows smoothly. If there are things you cannot easily express, possibly because of some doubt, it is better to leave them unsaid. Never read from a script. It is also unwise to have the talk written out in detail as a prompt sheet; chances are you will not locate the thing you want to say amongst all the other text. You should know most of what you want to say – if you do not, then you should not be giving the talk. So, prepare cue cards which have key words and phrases (and possibly sketches) on them. Postcards are ideal for this. Do not forget to number the cards in case you drop them. Remember to mark on your cards the visual aids that go with them so that the right OHP or slide is shown at the right time. Rehearse your presentation, to yourself at first and then in front of some colleagues. The initial rehearsal should consider how the words and the sequence of visual aids go together.

Making the Presentation Greet the audience (for example, ‘Good morning, ladies and gentlemen’) and tell them who you are. Good presentations then follow this formula: tell the audience what you are going to tell them, at the end tell them what you have told them. Keep to the time allowed. If you can, keep it short. It is better to under-run than over-run. As a rule of thumb, allow two minutes for each general overhead transparency or Power Point slide you use but longer for any that you want to use for developing specific points. 35mm slides are generally used more sparingly and stay on the screen longer. However, the audience will get bored with something on the screen for more than 5 minutes, especially, if you are not actively talking about it. So switch the display off or replace the slide with some form of ‘wallpaper’ such as a company logo. Stick to the plan for the presentation, don’t be tempted to digress – you will eat up time and could end up in a dead-end with no escape. Unless explicitly told not to, leave time for discussion. Five minutes are sufficient for clarification of points. The session chairman may extend this if the questioning becomes interesting. At the end of your presentation, ask if there are any questions. Avoid being tersewhen you do this, the audience may find it intimidating (i.e. it may come across as any questions?If there are, it shows you were not paying attention). If questions are slow in coming, you can start things off by asking a question from the audience, so have one prepared. Delivery Guidelines Following are some very useful and practical guidelines for delivering a smooth presentation: Speak clearly. Do not shout or whisper. Judge the acoustics of the room. Do not rush or talk deliberately slow. Be natural – although not conversational. Deliberately pause at key points – this has the effect of emphasizing the importance of a particular point you are making. Avoid jokes – always disastrous unless you are a natural expert. Use your hands to emphasize points but do not indulge in too much hand waving. Ask colleagues occasionally what they think of your style. Look at the audience as much as possible, but do not fix on an individual – it can be intimidating. Pitch your presentation towards the back of the audience, especially in larger rooms. Do not face the display screen behind you and talk to it. Also, do not stand in a position where you obscure the screen. In fact, positively check for anyone in the audience who may be disadvantaged and try to accommodate them. Avoid moving about too much. Pacing up and down can unnerve the audience; although, some animation is desirable. Keep an eye on the audience’s body language. Know when to stop and also when to cut out a piece of the presentation.

Using Visual Aids for Oral Presentations Visual aids significantly improve the interest of a presentation. However, they must be relevant to what you want to say. A careless design or use of a slide can simply get in the way of the presentation. What visual aids you use depend on the type of talk you are delivering. Here are some possible visual aids you can benefit from: • Overhead projection transparencies (OHPs) • 35mm Slides • Computer projection (PowerPoint, applications such as Excel, etc.) • Video and film • Real objects – either handled from the speaker’s bench or passed around • Flipchart or blackboard – possibly used as a ‘scratch-pad’ to expand on a point • Keep it simple though – a complex set of hardware can result in confusion for both the speaker and audience. Make sure you know in advance how to operate equipment and also when you want particular displays to appear and when and what signals you will use. Edit your slides as carefully as your talk – if a slide is superfluous then leave it out. If you need to use a slide twice, duplicate it. Slides and OHPs should contain the minimum information necessary. To do otherwise risks making the slide unreadable or will divert your audience’s attention so that they spend time reading the slide rather than listening to you. • Try to limit words per slide to a maximum of 10. Use a reasonable font size and a typeface which will enlarge well. • Typically use a minimum 18 pt. Times New Roman on OHPs and preferably larger. A guideline is: if you can read the OHP from a distance of 2 meters (without projection) then it’s probably ‘OK’. • Avoid using a diagram prepared for a technical report in your talk. It will be too detailed and difficult to read. • Use color on your slides but avoid orange and yellow which do not show up very well when projected. For text only, white or yellow on blue is pleasant to look at and easy to read. Books on presentation techniques often have quite detailed advice on the design of slides. • If possible, consult an expert such as the Audio Visual Centre. Avoid adding to OHPs with a pen during the talk – it’s messy and the audience will be fascinated by your shaking hand! • On this point, this is another good reason for pointing to the screen when explaining a slide rather than pointing to the OHP transparency. Room lighting should be considered. Too much light near the screen will make it difficult to see the detail.

LESSON 3 READER-CENTERED WRITING Outline In this lesson, you will learn the following steps for writing a resume & letter of application: • Defining your objectives • Planning • Drafting • Evaluating • Revising Writing your Resume a. Defining your objectives The first activity of writing- defining objectives- is especially important while you are writing a simple letter or job application letter. When defining your objectives, you tell what you want your communication to do. Thus, your objectives form the basis of all your other work of writing. To take the reader centered approach, you need to look at three things: a. The final result you desire. b. The people who will read your communication. c. The specific way you want your communication to affect the people as they read your communication. In the first stage, employers try to attract applications from as many qualified people as possible. At this stage of recruiting, resumes are usually read by people who work in a personal office. To understand the first stage, you may find it helpful to draw an imaginary portrait of the person going through your resume. Imagine a man who sat down to read a stack of 25-50 new applications that arrived in today’s mail. He does not have time to read through all the applications, so, he quickly sorts those applications which merit additional consideration. He quickly finds reasons to disqualify most applicants. Only, occasionally, does he read a full resume. As you write your resume you must keep in mind that it must quickly attract and hold that man’s attention. In the second stage of recruiting, employers carefully scrutinize the qualifications of the most promising applicants. Often this involves the visit of the candidates to the employer’s work place. The second stage reader of your resume includes managers of the department you have to work for.

To imagine your reader, you can imagine the head of the department at this stage. This person is shorthanded and wants rapidly to fill one or more openings. When s/he gets the resumes, s/he knows precisely what qualifications she seeks. Of course, some job searches vary from the two-stage recruiting procedure as described above. If you interview at a campus placement center, you will probably hand in your resume to the company recruiters at the same time you meet them. Deciding how you want your resumes to affect your readers is important. After you have identified the readers, you should determine how your resume will affect them in the job that you are seeking. More precisely, you should define how your resume is to affect your readers while they read it. To determine how your resume will affect your reader, you can think about two things: • The way you want your communication to alter your reader’s attitude • The task you want to help your readers perform while they read Altering your Audience’s Attitudes First determine how your audience feels before reading what you are writing, and then decide how you want them to feel after they have read it. However, your reader’s attitude before they read anything is neutral towards you. Once you have described your reader’s present and desired attitudes, try to find out things about your reader that will help you plan a strategy for persuading them to change their attitudes the way you specified. To begin, find out what will appeal to your audience. Altering your employer’s attitudes As common sense will tell you, your employers will want to hire people who are capable – applicants must be able to perform the tasks assigned to them. Responsible – applicants must be trustworthy enough to benefit the organization. Pleasant – applicants must be able to interact compatibly with other employees. The reader of your resume will look for specific terms. Instead of asking, “Is this applicant capable?”, he will ask “Can this person program in Java?”, etc. Helping your readers perform their tasks Different kinds of communication involve different tasks. When you know what those tasks are, you can write your communication in a way that will help your readers perform them easily. While reading your resume, your reader’s primary task is to get the answers to the following questions: • What exactly does the person want to do? • What kind of education does the person have for the job? • What experience does the person have in this or a similar job?

• What other activities has the person engaged in which have helped him prepare for the job? • How can I get more information about the person’s qualifications? Knowing that your readers will be looking for the answers to these questions tells you a great deal about what to include in your resume. b. Planning When you plan, you decide what to say and how to organize your material. In addition, you should find relevant expectations your readers have about your communication. Those expectations may limit the choices you make concerning content and organization. Deciding what to say provides you with direct help in determining what to say. In addition, your resume is a persuasive argument whose purpose is to convince your readers to hire you. The persuasive argument has two elements: a claim and an evidence to support your claim. Your definition of your objectives tells you what the implicit claim of your resume should be. That is: you are the kind of capable, responsible, and pleasant person that employers want to hire. You identify the specific facts you can mention as evidence to support the claim about yourself. Your objectives do that by alerting you to the kind of questions your readers will be asking about your resume.

Organizing your material When planning a communication, you need to decide not only what you will say but also how you will organize your material. For example, your definition of resume objectives requires you to emphasize the points as major evidence that you are qualified for the job you seek. More than one organizational pattern can be used to achieve those objectives. Most resumes are organized around an applicant’s experience. Thus, you can categorize them under educational experiences, work experiences, and so on. However, some individuals choose to organize a substantial part of their resume around their accomplishments and abilities. Such a resume is called a functional resume because it emphasizes the functions and tasks the applicant can perform. Whichever organizational pattern you choose, you must still decide the order you will use to present your resume. If you imagine your readers reading your resume, you will see that you have to make your name and professional achievements prominent. If you are writing conventional resume, you can provide the desired prominence by placing the name and professional objectives at the top. If you are designing a non-conventional resume, you may place your name along the bottom or side. After stating your professional objective, you should organize your remaining material by following one of the most basic strategies for writing at work: put the most important information first. This will ensure that your hurried readers come to the most important information quickly

For example, people in conservative fields take a similar conservative approach to resumes. To them, resume should be typed in a white, buff or gray paper with the applicant’s name and address at the top. Keep in mind, the conventions in your fields may be different and you may have to do some investigation to learn whether or not that is the case. c. Drafting When you draft, you transform your plans, notes, outlines, and ideas into a communication. For your resumes that you create at work, you must not only draft a prose but also draft the design and the visual appearance of your message. Drafting the Prose While you draft the prose of your resume, keep in mind the imaginary portraits of your readers. Remember that your purpose is to enable those people to locate the answers to their questions relating to you. Your professional objectives are statements which are one or two sentences long and are usually general enough that the writer could send them, without alteration to many prospect employers. Example If you follow the convention, for example, you would not say “I want to work in the process control department of Adam Jee cloth manufacturing unit.” Instead, you would make a more general statement like “I want to work in the process control of a mid-sized cloth manufacturing unit.” This does not mean, however, that you need to develop a single professional objective that you can send to all employers you might contact. Professional Objectives When you state your professional objective, you answer your reader’s question, ‘What exactly do you want to do?’ Your answer is extremely important to the resume. In contrast, people in other fields such as advertising are accustomed to seeing highly unconventional resumes, perhaps printed on a pink paper. You could write multiple resumes each with professional objective suited to respective fields. Consequently, the challenge you face when writing your professional objective is to be neither too general nor too specific. You have struck the proper balance if you could send the same resume to several companies and if your readers can see that you want to work in a particular kind of organization. Education When describing your education, you provide evidence that you are capable of performing the job you applied for. The basic evidence is your college degree, so you should name the college and your degree and the date of graduation.

Remember If your grades are good, mention them. If you have earned any academic honors, mention them. If you have any specialized academic experience, such as a co-assignment or internship, describe it. Example By looking at Ramon and Sharon’s resumes you can see how three very different people have elaborated on the way their education qualify them for the jobs they want. Ramon, for example, describes his honors in a separate section, thereby, making them more prominent than they would have been under the simple heading of ‘Education’.

LESSON 4 AUDIENCE ANALYSIS Outline In this lecture, you will learn ‘Audience Analysis: • Target Audience • Writing for Experts Types of Experts o General experts o Specific experts • Audience’s use of Document Target Audience ‘Target audience’ is a specified audience or demographic group for whom a message is designed. Your target audience is the individuals, groups, communities and bodies of decision makers who can influence your target. Your target is the individual or individuals who have direct decisionmaking power over the issue your organization is working to address. Often a document will be read by readers with different levels of expertise. A mixed group of audience may be based on experts, technicians, managers, and laypersons. Target your audience by identifying audience type, characteristics and level of expertise. Determine your audience’s needs by assessing their expertise and their purpose in reading the document. Determine document density. People read technical documents for different reasons, and readers have varying levels of technical expertise. To be effective, technical writing must target its audience or audiences. Target your audience by identifying your audience type and level of expertise, your audience purpose in using the document, and your audience attitude towards both you and the content of your document. Writing for Experts Distinguish between two types of experts: • General experts • Specific experts Both kinds are readers with extensive technical knowledge of the document’s subject matter. General experts possess extensive knowledge about a field in general, but they might be unfamiliar with particular technical terms, specific equipment, or recent advances in your document’s subject matter. Specific experts, on the other hand, share or surpass your knowledge about a document’s subject matter.

Audience’s Use of a Document Experts read technical and scientific documents for a variety of purposes: • To maintain and expand their own general expertise • To obtain specific answers to their own research and writing • To evaluate a document’s technical or scientific content Strategies for Writing to Technicians Following are the strategies for writing to technicians: • Keep introductions and background information brief. • Make information accessible. • Provide short definitions or explanations of any unfamiliar terms, tools, devices, or procedures. Managers read technical and scientific documents for a variety of purposes: • To aid in making decisions • To assess current situations • To maintain their general level of expertise • To evaluate projects and employees In general, managers read for the bottom line, a concise summary of the present situation and specific recommendations for action. Audience’s General Use of Document Readers of technical and scientific writings, whatever their level of expertise, read a document for three general purposes: • To acquire information • To help make decisions • To learn how to do something On the other hand, if the audience does not know you or does not consider you an expert, or if the reader has had past negative experience with you or your organization, the document should include extensive explanations of your conclusions and recommendations to create trust and establish credibility.

LESSON 5 EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION DEFINING OBJECTIVES-I Outline In this lecture, you will learn: • Defining Objectives • Document Purpose a. Explicit Purposes o to provide information o to give instructions o to persuade the reader o to enact (or prohibit) something b. Implicit Purposes o to establish a relationship o to create trust and establish credibility o to document actions Defining your Communication Objectives Defining Objectives – determining what your document needs to accomplish to be successful. Defining the objectives of your communication is extremely important. Defining objectives has a strong link with the audience analysis covered in the last lesson. Purpose for writing documents Document Purpose Documents should be created for explicit purposes or goals that both the writer and the reader would readily agree on. Although there are many explicit purposes for creating a scientific or technical document, there are four general categories: • To provide information • To give instructions • To persuade the reader • To enact (or prohibit) something Points to keep in mind while writing a document Make the explicit purpose clear at the beginning of your document in an abstract, an executive summary, an introduction, or all of these. Sometimes, a formal statement of objective is called for. You may also need to identify the person, the agency, or the contract requiring or authorizing the document or research. In addition to explicit goals, however, writers almost always write with unstated but still extremely important implicit goals in mind. Among the most common of these goals are to establish a relationship, to create trust and credibility, and to document actions.

a. Explicit Purposes of a Document Explicit purpose means the purpose which is clearly stated. As discussed earlier, most scientific documents have, as their principal (explicit) purpose, one or more of the following actions: • To provide information • To give instructions • To persuade the reader • To enact (or prohibit something) Whatever is the general purpose of an overall document, certain sections of a document always have a specific purpose. Documents that provide information Document Types • Literature reviews • Specifications Sections in Document • Background • Theory • Materials • Results • Tables Example “This document will discuss the reasons behind constructing a new Trade Center in Islamabad.” Documents that give instructions Document Type • Proposals Sections in Document • Procedures • Work plan Example “This document outlines a procedure for constructing a new Trade Center in Islamabad.” Documents meant to ‘persuade’ the reader Document Types • Proposals • Recommendation Reports • Job application Letters • Résumés

MTH301 Book

Lecture No-1 Introduction – Calculus is the mathematical tool used to analyze changes in physical quantities. – Calculus is also Mathematics of Motion and Change. – Where there is motion or growth, where variable forces are at work producing acceleration, Calculus is right mathematics to apply. Differential Calculus Deals with the Problem of Finding (1)Rate of change. (2)Slope of curve. Velocities and acceleration of moving bodies. Firing angles that give cannons their maximum range. The times when planets would be closest together or farthest apart. Integral Calculus Deals with the Problem of determining a Function from information about its rates of Change. Integral Calculus Enables Us (1) To calculate lengths of curves. (2) To find areas of irregular regions in plane. (3) To find the volumes and masses of arbitrary solids (4) To calculate the future location of a body from its present position and knowledge of the forces acting on it. Reference Axis System Before giving the concept of Reference Axis System we recall you the concept of real line and locate some points on the real line as shown in the figure below, also remember that the real number system consist of both Rational and Irrational numbers that is we can write set of real numbers as union of rational and irrational numbers.

Here in the above figure we have locate some of the rational as well as irrational numbers and also note that there are infinite real numbers between every two real numbers. Now if you are working in two dimensions then you know that we take the two mutually perpendicular lines and call the horizontal line as x-axis and vertical line as y-axis and where these lines cut we take that point as origin. Now any point on the x-axis will be denoted by an order pair whose first element which is also known as abscissa is a real number and other element of the order pair which is also known as ordinate will has 0 values. Similarly any point on the y-axis can be representing by an order pair. Some points are shown in the figure below. Also note that these lines divide the plane into four regions, First ,Second ,Third and Fourth quadrants respectively. We take the positive real numbers at the right side of the origin and negative to the left side, in the case of x-axis.

Location of a point Now we will illustrate how to locate the point in the plane using x and y axis. Draw two perpendicular lines from the point whose position is to be determined. These lines will intersect at some point on the x-axis and y-axis and we can find out these points. Now the distance of the point of intersection of x-axis and perpendicular line from the origin is the X-C ordinate of the point P and similarly the distance from the origin to the point of intersection of y-axis and perpendicular line is the Y-coordinate of the point P as shown in the figure below. In space we have three mutually perpendicular lines as reference axis namely x ,y and z axis. Now you can see from the figure below that the planes x= 0 ,y=0 and z=0 divide the space into eight octants. Also note that in this case we have (0,0,0) as origin and any point in the space will have three coordinates.

Sign of co-ordinates in different octants First of all note that the equation x=0 represents a plane in the 3d space and in this plane every point has its x-coordinate as 0, also that plane passes through the origin as shown in the figure above. Similarly y=0 and z=0 are also define a plane in 3d space and have properties similar to that of x=0.Such that these planes also pass through the origin and any point in the plane y=0 will have y-coordinate as 0 and any point in the plane z=0 has z-coordinate as 0. Also remember that when two planes intersect we get the equation of a line and when two lines intersect then we get a plane containing these two lines. Now note that by the intersection of the planes x=0 and z=0 we get the line which is our y-axis. Also by the intersection of x=0 and y=0 we get the line which is z-axis, similarly you can easily see that by the intersection of z=0 and y=0 we get line which is x-axis. Now these three planes divide the 3d space into eight octants depending on the positive and negative direction of axis. The octant in which every coordinate of any point has positive sign is known as first octant formed by the positive x, y and z –axis. Similarly in second octant every points has x-coordinate as negative and other two coordinates as positive correspond to negative xaxis and positive y and z axis. Now one octant is that in which every point has x and y coordinate negative and zcoordinate positive, which is known as the third octant. Similarly we have eight octants depending on the sign of coordinates of a point. These are summarized below. First octant (+, +, +) Formed by positive sides of the three axis. Second octant (-, +, + ) Formed by –ve x-axis and positive y and z-axis. Third octant ( -, -, +) Formed by –ve x and y axis with positive z-axis. Fourth octant ( +, -, +) Formed by +ve x and z axis and –ve y-axis. Fifth octant (+, +, -) Formed by +ve x and y axis with -ve z-axis. Sixth octant ( -, +, -) Formed by –ve x and z axis with positive y-axis. Seventh octant ( -, -, -) Formed by –ve sides of three axis. Eighth octant ( +, -, -) Formed by -ve y and z-axis with +ve x-axis. (Remember that we have two sides of any axis one of positive values and the other is of negative values) Now as we told you that in space we have three mutually perpendicular lines as reference axis. So far you are familiar with the reference axis for 2d which consist of two perpendicular lines namely x-axis and y-axis. For the reference axis of 3d space we need another perpendicular axis which can be obtained by the cross product of the two vectors, now the direction of that vector can be obtained by Right hand rule. This is illustartaed below with diagram

Concept of a Function Historically, the term, function, denotes the dependence of one quantity on other quantity. The quantity x is called the independent variable and the quantity y is called the dependent variable. We write y = f (x) and we read y is a function of x. The equation y = 2x defines y as a function of x because each value assigned to x determines unique value of y. Examples of function – The area of a circle depends on its radius r by the equation A= πr 2 so, we say that A is a function of r. – The volume of a cube depends on the length of its side x by the equation V= x3 so, we say that V is a function of x. – The velocity V of a ball falling freely in the earth’s gravitational field increases with time t until it hits the ground, so we say that V is function of t. – In a bacteria culture, the number n of present after one day of growth depends on the number N of bacteria present initially, so we say that N is function of n. Function of Several Variables Many functions depend on more than one independent variable. Examples The area of a rectangle depends on its length l and width w by the equation A = l w , so we say that A is a function of l and w. The volume of a rectangular box depends on the length l, width w and height h by the equation V = l w h so, we say that V is a function of l , w and h. The area of a triangle depends on its base length l and height h by the equation A= ½ l h, so we say that A is a function of l and h. The volume V of a right circular cylinder depends on its radius r and height h by the equation V= πr2h so, we say that V is a function of r and h. Home Assignments: In the first Lecture we recall some basic terminologies which are essential and prerequisite for this course. You can find the Home Assignments on the last page of Lecture # 1 at LMS.

General equation of the Parabola opening upward or downward is of the form y = f(x) = ax2 +bx + c. Opening upward if a > 0. Opening downward if a < 0. x co-ordinate of the vertex is given by x0 = -b/2a. So the y co-ordinate of the vertex is y0= f(x0) axis of symmetry is x = x0. As you can see from the figure below Sketching of the graph of parabola y = ax2 +bx + c Finding vertex: x – co-ordinate of the vertex is given by x0= – b/2a So, y – co-ordinate of the vertex is y0= a x0 2 +b x0 + c. Hence vertex is V(x0 , y0). Example: Sketch the parabola y = – x2 + 4x Solution: Since a = -1 < 0, parabola is opening downward. Vertex occurs at x = – b/2a = (-4)/2(-1) =2. Axis of symmetry is the vertical line x = 2. The y-co-ordinate of the vertex isy = -(2)2 + 4(2) = 4. Hence vertex is V(2 , 4 ). The zeros of the parabola (i.e. the point where the parabola meets x-axis) are the solutions to -x2 +4x = 0 so x = 0 and x = 4. Therefore (0,0)and (4,0) lie on the parabola. Also (1,3) and (3,3) lie on the parabola. Graph of y = – x2 + 4x Example y = x 2 – 4x+3 Solution: Since a = 1 > 0, parabola is opening upward.Vertex occurs at x = – b/2a = (4)/2 =2.Axis of symmetry is the vertical line x = 2. The y co-ordinate of the vertex is y = (2)2 – 4(2) + 3 = -1.Hence vertex is V(2 , -1 )The zeros of the parabola (i.e. the point where the parabola meets x-axis) are the solutions to x2 – 4x + 3 = 0, so x = 1 and x = 3.Therefore (1,0)and (3,0) lie on the parabola. Also (0 ,3 ) and (4, 3 ) lie on the parabola.

Lecture No-3 Elements of three dimensional geometry Distance formula in three dimension Let 1 11 Px y z (, ,) and 2 22 Qx y z (, ,) be two points such that PQ is not parallel to one of the coordinate axis Then 2 22 21 2 1 21 PQ x x y y z z = − +− +− ( )( )( ) Which is known as Distance fromula between the points P and Q. Example of distance formula Mid point of two points If R is the middle point of the line segment PQ, then the co-ordinates of the middle points are x= (x1+x2)/2 , y= (y1+y2)/2 , z= (z1+z2)/2 Let us consider tow points A(3,2,4) and B(6,10,-1) Then the co-ordinates of mid point of AB is [(3+6)/2,(2+10)/2,(4-1)/2] = (9/2,6,3/2) Direction Angles Direction Ratios Cosines of direction angles are called direction cosines Any multiple of direction cosines are called direction numbers or direction ratios of the line L.

Direction angles of a Line The angles which a line makes with positive x,y and z-axis are known as Direction Angles. In the above figure the blue line has direction angles as α,andwhich are the angles which blue line makes with x,y and z-axis respectively. Direction cosines: Now if we take the cosine of the Direction Angles of a line then we get the Direction cosines of that line. So the Direction Cosines of the above line are given by Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points •For a line joining two points P(x1, y1, z1) and Q(x2, y2 , x2) the direction ratios are

Intersection of two surfaces •Intersection of two surfaces is a curve in three dimensional space. •It is the reason that a curve in three dimensional space is represented by two equations representing the intersecting surfaces. Intersection of Cone and Sphere Intersection of Two Planes If the two planes are not parallel, then they intersect and their intersection is a straight line. Thus, two non-parallel planes represent a straight line given by two simultaneous linear equations in x, y and z and are known as non-symmetric form of equations of a straight line

Lecture -4 Polar co-ordinates You know that position of any point in the plane can be obtained by the two perpendicular lines known as x and y axis and together we call it as Cartesian coordinates for plane. Beside this coordinate system we have another coordinate system which can also use for obtaining the position of any point in the plane. In that coordinate system we represent position of each particle in the plane by “r” and “θ ”where “r” is the distance from a fixed point known as pole and θ is the measure of the angle. “O” is known as pole. Conversion formula from polar to Cartesian coordinates and vice versa From above diagram and remembering the trigonometric ratios we can write x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ. Now squaring these two equations and adding we get, x2 + y2 = r2 Dividing these equations we get y/x = tanθ These two equations gives the relation between the Plane polar and Plane Cartesian coordinates. Rectangular co-ordinates for 3d Since you know that the position of any point in the 3d can be obtained by the three mutually perpendicular lines known as x ,y and z – axis and also shown in figure below, these coordinate axis are known as Rectangular coordinate system.

Cylindrical co-ordinates Beside the Rectangular coordinate system we have another coordinate system which is used for getting the position of the any particle is in space known as the cylindrical coordinate system as shown in the figure below. Spherical co-ordinates Beside the Rectangular and Cylindrical coordinate systems we have another coordinate system which is used for getting the position of the any particle is in space known as the spherical coordinate system as shown in the figure below.

Conversion formulas between rectangular and cylindrical co-ordinates Now we will find out the relation between the Rectangular coordinate system and Cylindrical coordinates. For this consider any point in the space and consider the position of this point in both the axis as shown in the figure below. In the figure we have the projection of the point P in the xy-Plane and write its position in plane polar coordinates and also represent the angle θ now from that projection we draw perpendicular to both of the axis and using the trigonometric ratios find out the following relations. Conversion formulas between cylindrical and spherical co-ordinates Now we will find out the relation between spherical coordinate system and Cylindrical coordinate system. For this consider any point in the space and consider the position of this point in both the axis as shown in the figure below. First we will find the relation between Planes polar to spherical, from the above figure you can easily see that from the two right angled triangles we have the following

Now from these equations we will solve the first and second equation for ρ and φ. Thus we have Conversion formulas between rectangular and spherical co-ordinates (ρ, θ, Φ) → (x, y, z) Since we know that the relation between Cartesian coordinates and Polar coordinates are x = r cos θ, y = r sin θ and z = z .We also know the relation between Spherical and cylindrical coordinates are, Now putting this value of “r” and “z” in the above formulas we get the relation between spherical coordinate system and Cartesian coordinate system. Now we will find ( x, y, z) → ( ρ, θ, Φ) x 2 + y2 +z2 = (ρsin Φ cos θ) 2 + (ρsin Φ sin θ) 2 + (ρ cos Φ) 2 = ρ 2 {sin2 Φ(cos2 θ + sin2 θ) +cos2 Φ)} = ρ 2 (sin 2 Φ + cos2 Φ) 2 = ρ 2 Tanθ = y/x and Cos Φ = Constant surfaces in rectangular co-ordinates The surfaces represented by equations of the form x = x0, y = y0, z = z0 where xo, yo, zo are constants, are planes parallel to the xy-plane, xz-plane and xyplane, respectively.

Constant surfaces in cylindrical co-ordinates The surface r = ro is a right cylinder of radius ro centered on the z-axis. At each point (r, θ, z) this surface on this cylinder, r has the value r0 , z is unrestricted and 0 ≤ θ < 2π. The surface θ = θ0 is a half plane attached along the z-axis and making angle θ0 with the positive x-axis. At each point (r, θ, z) on the surface ,θ has the value θ0, z is unrestricted and r ≥0. The surfaces z = zo is a horizontal plane. At each point (r, θ, z) this surface z has the value z0 , but r and θ are unrestricted as shown in the figure below. Constant surfaces in spherical co-ordinates The surface ρ = ρo consists of all points whose distance ρ from origin is ρo. Assuming that ρo to be nonnegative, this is a sphere of radius ρo centered at the origin. The surface θ = θ0 is a half plane attached along the z-axis and making angle θ0 with the positive xaxis. The surface Φ = Φ0 consists of all points from which a line segment to the origin makes an angle of Φ0 with the positive z-axis. Depending on whether 0< Φ0 < π/2 or π/2 < Φ0< π, this will be a cone opening up or opening down. If Φ0 = π/2, then the cone is flat and the surface is the xy-plane.

Spherical Co-ordinates in Navigation Spherical co-ordinates are related to longitude and latitude coordinates used in navigation. Let us consider a right handed rectangular coordinate system with origin at earth’s center, positive z-axis passing through the north pole,and x-axis passing through the prime meridian. Considering earth to be a perfect sphere of radius ρ = 4000 miles, then each point has spherical coordinates of the form (4000,θ,Φ) where Φ and θ determine the latitude and longitude of the point. Longitude is specified in degree east or west of the prime meridian and latitudes is specified in degree north or south of the equator. Domain of the Function • In the above definitions the set D is the domain of the function. • The Set of all values which the function assigns for every element of the domain is called the Range of the function. • When the range consist of real numbers the functions are called the real valued function. NATURAL DOMAIN Natural domain consists of all points at which the formula has no divisions by zero and produces only real numbers. Examples Consider the Function 2 ϖ = − . y x Then the domain of the function is


MGT101 Book-Financial Accounting

BASIC CONCEPTS OF ACCOUNTING Learning Objective The objective of this lecture is to introduce the subject of “Financial Accounting” to the students and give them an idea as to how did accounting develop? What is Financial Accounting? It is the maintenance of daily record of All financial transactions in such a manner that it would help in the preparation of suitable information regarding the financial affairs of a business or an individual. Why is Financial Accounting needed? The need for recording financial transactions arises because the individual or business wants to know the performance of the business and to assist the person in making decisions related to the business. What are Transactions? In accounting or business terms, any dealing between two persons involving money or a valuable thing is called transaction. Human beings are social animals and are bound to adopt a community living style. Living in a community, essentially means that people interact with other people and are dependant on each other to fulfil their needs. Every person cannot fulfil all his needs like food, clothing, housing etc. on his own. He, therefore, depends on other people for his needs, in return to this providing others with some of theirs. It means that one will fulfil his needs from others and will provide others the things of their need in return. Every instance where one ‘gives something’ to ‘get something’ is called a transaction. How did it develop? Nearly all developments happen because of human being’s need for the same. Accountancy is no different. There was times when goods were bartered or exchanged. But when the concept of money was introduced, it became a little more difficult. What is a Budget? Budget is a plan of income, expenses & other financial operation for a future period. Concept of Costing A person making or producing any thing must not only know how much it costs to make but also to help in determining the selling price. It is necessary that the person not only knows the cost of what is being produced but also the cost of each component which has gone into production. The control of the costs being incurred is also necessary otherwise the same can exceed the estimates. All this is only possible if the costs and data relating to production is properly recorded and analysed. It is an exercise that only carries out by the Accountant. Impact of IT on Accounting The old “Munshi,” who kept record of the financial dealings was the original accountant. But he is now of no use, as he lacks the capability for analysing the information recorded and forecasting financial information

In fact, there is no need for any expert in writing of books. Information Technology has taken over. But some one has to tell the Software developer how books are written? The need for an Accountant who is well versed in the art of writing up books still remains. The role has changed. Information Technology software can now produce the reports and analysis but need the expert to interpret all of this remains. The need for the professional to describe this has not yet been overtaken by Information Technology. Barter Trading and Barter Transactions Trading one commodity or service for another commodity or service is called ‘Barter trading’. OR Every transaction where goods are exchanged for goods is called a ‘Barter Transaction’. Since every person cannot produce every thing that he needs. Therefore, he needs to give / sell what he produces in order to get / buy what he wants? In early days when ‘money’ was not introduced, people used to exchange goods for goods. This kind of trade, where goods are exchanged for goods, is called barter trade. In fact, in barter trade, value of one commodity is quoted in terms of other commodity, for example the price of 10 kg of wheat may be equal to 2 meters of cloth or 5 litres of milk. Although, there is no involvement of money but still every commodity has a value, which means that you have to give a specific quantity of one commodity to buy a specific quantity of another commodity. Money Measurement Concept With the passage of time, the trading volumes and types of commodities available in the market are increased and it became difficult to exchange commodity with other commodity. That is why the concept of cash / money is introduced and people started valuing all goods / services in terms of a common commodity called money. Now the price of 10 kg wheat would be Rupees 60 instead of 2 meters of cloth. Similarly, the price of 2 meters of cloth and 5 litres of milk would also be Rupees 60. In accounting, every transaction that is worth recording is recorded in terms of money. In other words any event or item that cannot be translated in terms of money is not recorded in books of accounts. Cash and Credit Transactions Translating every transaction in terms of money does not always mean that the money changes hands, the same time at which the transaction takes place. It may be paid before or after the goods are exchanged. When the money value of an item being purchased is paid, at the same time when the item is exchanged. The transaction is said to be a cash transaction or in other words, if the value of transaction is met in cash at the time of the transaction such kind of transaction is said to be cash transaction. On the other hand, if the payment is delayed to a future date, the transaction is termed as a credit transaction. Different Types of Business Organizations 1. Sole Proprietorship According to D.W.T. Stafford, “It is the simplest form of business organization, which is owned and controlled by one man”

Sole proprietorship is the oldest form of business organization which is owned and controlled by one person. In this business, one man invests his capital himself. He is all in all in doing his business. He enjoys the whole of the profit. The features of sole proprietorship are: • Easy Formation • Unlimited Liability • Ownership • Profit • Management • Easy Dissolution 2. Partnership According to Partnership Act, 1932, “Partnership is the relation between persons who have agreed to share the profits of a business carried on by all or any of them acting for all.” Partnership means a lawful business owned by two or more persons. The profit of the business shared by the partners in agreed ratio. The liability of each partner is unlimited. Small and medium size business activities are performed under this organization. It has the following features: • Legal Entity • Profit and Loss Distribution • Unlimited Liability • Transfer of Rights • Management • Number of Partners 3. Joint Stock Company According to S. E. Thomas, “A company is an incorporated association of persons formed usually for the pursuit of some commercial purposes” A joint stock company is a voluntary association of persons created by law. It has a separate legal entity apart from its members. It can sue and be sued in its name. In the joint stock company, the work of organization begins before its incorporation by promoters and it continues after incorporation. The joint stock company has the following feature: • Creation of Law • Separate Legal Entity • Limited Liability • Transferability of shares • Number of Members • Common Seal

RECORD KEEPING AND SOME BASIC CONCEPTS Learning Objective The evolution of accounting stated in the previous lecture continues with a slight emphasis on how actual record keeping started? In addition, some basic concepts like capital, profit, and budget are also introduced. Different Types of Business Entities • Commercial Organizations (Profit Oriented) o Sole proprietor o Partnership o Limited companies • Non-Commercial Organizations (Non-Profit Oriented) o NGO’s (Non-government Organizations) o Trusts o Societies The Basic Concept of Record Keeping We can maintain a diary of transactions and note the daily transactions like sale, purchase etc. in it. Problems Faced in Maintaining Diary of Transactions • How will we come to know the income and expenses from various sources? • We only have a sheet / page on which daily transactions are listed. • We do not know which product is selling better and which is not.

Available Alternate One can go through all the transactions at the end of the month and note different types of transactions on different pages. So that every page gives complete detail for a different type of transaction like sales of different products and expenses of different types Now try to go through these transactions and separate transactions of different types. But what if the number of transactions is large? Is it really possible to go through hundreds or thousands of transactions at the month end and analyse them to obtain required results. Cash and Credit Transactions Sales and purchase are not always for cash. Some times the payment / receipt is delayed to a future date (Sale/purchase for “UDHAR”). The diary that we have discussed above, records cash transactions only. The “UDHAR” (credit) transactions may be noted in separate diary. Now we have two diaries one for cash and one for credit. We need to know total sales and purchases (both cash and credit) and other information like the amount that is payable and receivable. How will we get our required results now? Do we need another diary to combine information from both these diaries? But when we receive or pay cash for the credit transactions will we again record the transactions on the day, When cash is received or paid? If so, where to record? So the problems keep on increasing with the size or volume of business. But one thing is becoming certain and that is that an accurate reflection of business transacted can only be obtained if both cash and credit transactions are recorded in such a manner that there is no duplication and yet the transactions are completely recorded. This is possible only under Commercial Accounting. Commercial Accounting Commercial Accounting is done through a system that is known as Double entry book keeping. Single Entry and Double Entry Accounting • Single entry accounting/Cash accounting. This system records only cash movement of transactions and that too up to the extent of recording one aspect of the transactions. This means that only receipt or payment of cash is recorded and no separate record is maintained (about the source of receipt and payment) as to from whom the cash was received or to whom it was paid. • Double entry book keeping/Commercial accounting. Double entry or commercial accounting system records both aspects of transaction i.e. receipt or payment and source of receipt or payment. It also records credit transactions i.e. recording of Electricity Bill or accruals of Salary payment etc. . This concept will be explained in detail in the next lectures but for the time being it should be noted that in cash accounting date of receipt / payment of actual cash is important while in commercial accounting

the date on which the expense is caused (whether paid or not) as well as the spreading of the cost of certain items over their useful life becomes important. Capital No business can run without money or resources being invested therein. Whatever money or resources from ones’ own pocket are put in a business is referred to as CAPITAL. Capital is the investment of the Owner in the business. This capital or investment must earn a return or profit on its use even if it is coming out of ones’ pocket. This return is also known as PROFIT. So no capital should be without a profit or a return. Also, no Capital even if coming from the business owner can be without cost. Why? Because if the same sum that was used in a business was put in the bank or used to buy Defence Savings or National Savings Certificates, a certain amount of profit would have been earned. By putting this money in business, a return must be expected. Money Value of Time Another important concept to remember in all businesses is that of MONEY VALUE OF TIME. Time spend by the owner also has value; he should be remunerated for it. (The time of the proprietor or business persons spent on the business is also a business cost and must be paid for by the business in addition to the profit). Why because, if the business person had employed somebody else in his place, the person would be paid a salary. Therefore, a business person’s time and money both have costs attached to them. Nothing is free nor should be expected to be free of cost. Goodwill This is simply the value attached to the good reputation earned through good and clean conduct of business over a number of years. This good reputation also has a value and becomes part of investment in business Is Cash in Hand our Profit? Not unless we have deducted from cash sales it is the total amount of expenses that are accrued or are on credit and added to it to the sales made on credit for which cash is to be received at a later date. The simple equation for calculation of profit would thus be: Cash Sale-Cash Payment + (Credit Sale-Credit Expense) Also remember that certain items have a long life and will be used during that time to earn more money for business. The cost of such items will as be spread over their life and also accounted for accordingly in the above equation. . Budget Budgeting is another important aspect of business planning. The budget is made to ensure that there is at least a balance between Income earned and the expenses incurred on earning this income in the first instance, and to provide a reasonable return on the capital used in the business. However, if there is a shortfall between of Income as against expense, it means that more is being spent and less earned. Decisions will be required to bring the situation to balance or if it cannot be so then to arrange for loans or more capital to ensure business continues. But business cannot be run on loans and these must be repaid. Budget Is an Organization’s Plan of a Future Period Expressed in Money Terms

SYSTEMS OF ACCOUNTING AND SOME BASIC TERMINOLOGIES Learning Objective After studying this lecture, the students should be able to: • Distinguish between Cash Accounting and Accrual Accounting; • Understand what is o Income o Expenses o Profit or Net Profit • Distinguish between Cash in Hand and Profit. • Distinguish between Capital Expenses and Revenue Expenses; and • Understand what is Liability? Cash Accounting and Accrual Accounting Cash Accounting It is the accounting system in which events are recorded when actual cash / cheque is received or paid. Let’s take the example of utility bills like electricity, telephone etc. The bill of January is received on 15th February and paid on 25th February. If the organization is following cash accounting practice it will record the expense of electricity / telephone on 25th February because the actual payment is made on that day. The same principle applies for income and other transactions as well i.e. income is recorded when cash is actually received instead recording when it is earned. Accrual Accounting It is the accounting system in which events are recorded as and when they occur. This means that income is recorded when it is earned and expense is recorded when incurred i.e. the organization has obtained the benefit from it. Consider the above example. The electricity is utilized in the month of January so the expense should be recorded in the month of January. Similarly the company that is providing the electricity should record the income in the month of January. Income Income is the value of goods or services that a business charges from its customers. Businesses can be distributed in two major categories. One that provides / sells goods and the other that provides services. If the organization is commercial then these goods or services will always be provided at some price. This price at which these goods / services are provided is the income of the organization, providing the goods / services. Expenses Expenses are the costs incurred to earn revenue. In order to earn revenue, one has to spend some money such as the cost of goods that are sold or the money paid to the individuals who are providing services plus other costs. These costs that are incurred / spent by the business to earn the revenue are the expenses of the business. Profit or Net Profit Net income or Net Profit is the amount by which the income exceeds expenses in a specific time period.

Profit is what is left of the income after all expenses (paid and incurred) have been deducted from it. Net Profit = Income – Expenses Cash in Hand and Profit We have said that profit is what is left of income after deducting the expenses. Is it the income received in cash less the expenses paid in cash? Or do we have to consider other things as well? It can be explained with the help of following example. A trader purchases some goods from a supplier for Rs. 1,500 and promises to pay in two weeks time. (Remember credit transactions from lecture 02). The same day he sells these to a customer for Rs. 2,000 who pays Rs. 1,000 and promises to pay the balance amount after one week. Now at the end of the day, the trader has Rs. 1,000 in his hand. After one week, he will have another Rs. 1,000 and he will pay Rs. 1,500 after two weeks. What is profit? Is Rs. 1,000 that he has in his hand on day one is his profit. The answer is No. He still has to receive Rs. 1,000 and pay Rs. 1,500 to the supplier plus any other expenses that he may have incurred in the process of this trade. His actual profit is Rs. 500 less any other expenses that he incurs, which is the difference of the total amount that he receives from customer and the amount that he pays to the supplier less other expenses. What we understand form this example is that cash in hand is not always the profit. To work out the profit we have to consider the total income and total expenses irrespective of the fact that actual payment has been made or not. Capital and Revenue Expenses We have established, to calculate the profit, all expenses are deducted from income. Are all payments that we make are expenses and have to be deducted from the income? Consider the different types of payments that could be made by a business organization. The payments could be for utility bills, salaries, fuel bills or purchase of vehicle, furniture etc. Out of the types discussed above utility bills, salaries and fuel bill are the payments for which the organisation has already enjoyed the benefit. Whereas vehicle and furniture are the types from which the company will derive the benefit for a long time. If the payment made for vehicles and furniture is subtracted from the income of the period in which payment was made, the profit for that period will be too low. Whereas, in the future period when the item will still be providing benefit to the company there will be no expense to match the benefit of that expense. This means that we have to distinguish between the payments / expenses that provide benefit to the company immediately and those that last for a longer period. In accounting the expenses that provide benefit immediately are called “Revenue Expenses” and those expenses whose benefit last for a longer period are called “Capital Expenses”. Liabilities Liabilities are the debts and obligations of the business. Liability is the obligation of the business to provide a benefit or asset on a future date. We have discussed credit transactions. Whenever a person purchases something on credit he promises to pay for the goods on a future date. This is his obligation to pay cash at a future date and thus it becomes his liability.

SINGLE AND DOUBLE ENTRY RECORD KEEPING Learning Objective • The objective of this lecture is to develop an understanding in the students about the basic concepts like: o The separate business entity o Single and double entry book-keeping o Debit and Credit o The dual aspect of a transaction o Accounting equation Separate Entity Concept In accounting, ‘The Business’ is treated independently from the persons who own it. This means, although anything owned by the business belongs to the owners of the business and anything owed by the business is payable by the owners but for accounting purposes, we assume that the business is independent from its owners. This means, if the business purchases a machine or piece of equipment, business will own and obtain benefit from that machine or equipment. Likewise, if the business borrows money from ‘someone’ it will have to repay the money. This ‘someone’ includes even the owner of the business. This treatment of the business independently from its owners is called the ‘Separate Entity Concept’. Single Entry Book-keeping This is the conventional style of keeping records of financial transactions. In single entry book keeping system, as it is clear from the name, only one aspect of the transaction is recorded. This actually is not a system but is a procedure by which small business concerns, like retailers and small shopkeepers, keep record of their sale / income. In this system, there are usually two to three registers “Khata”. In one register cash received from customers is recorded, whereas the other one is a personwise record of goods sold on credit “Udhar Khata”. There may or may not be a register of suppliers to whom money is payable. That means, only one aspect of transaction i.e. either cash receipt or the fact that money is receivable from someone is recorded. Double Entry Book-keeping The concept of double entry is based on the fact that every transaction has two aspects i.e. receiving a benefit and giving a benefit. The accounting system that records both the aspects of transaction in books of accounts is called double entry system. The account that receives the benefit is debited and the account that provides the benefit is credited. ‘Debit’ and ‘Credit’ are denoted by ‘Dr’ and ‘Cr’ respectively. The ultimate result of the system is that for every Debit (Dr) there is an equal Credit (Cr). Single & Double Entry Book-keeping Distinguished The double entry system is a more sophisticated, comprehensive and reliable form of single entry book keeping system. • Single entry system records only one aspect of the transaction such as: o Cash received from sale is recorded in cash register only, o Goods sold on credit are recorded in the individual’s account only, o When cash is received from the customer, to whom something was sold on credit, the receipt may just be recorded in the account of individual only. • Double entry system records both the aspects of the transaction;

When good are sold on cash the two aspects of the transaction are – the seller has sold goods and received cash against them. The goods sold are benefit transferred to the purchaser (Credit) whereas the cash received if the benefit against the goods sold (Debit). o When the goods are sold on credit the benefit given is the same i.e. goods sold but the benefit received is not cash but a right to receive cash from the customer. Therefore, in this case Debit is given to customer’s account (account receivable) instead of cash. o When cash is received from the customer the right to receive cash ceases. So, the benefit received is cash and benefit transferred is the right to receive cash. Here cash will be debited and customer will be credited. Adopting the double entry accounting system can, therefore, have following benefits: o Every transaction has equal Debit and Credit; hence the total of all Debit accounts will be equal to the total of all Credit accounts at any given time. This serves as a quick test of mathematical accuracy of book keeping. o Since all aspects of transactions are recorded, therefore, the books are more informative. In the above example of trader, if he keeps records under double entry system will know the exact figure of total sale, cash in hand and receivable from customers from their respective accounts at any desired time. Debit and Credit Debit and Credit are two Latin words and as such it is difficult to say what do these mean. But we can develop an understanding as to what does these terms stand for. Debit It signifies the receiving of benefit. In simple words it is the left hand side. DEBIT is a record of an indebtedness; specifically an entry on the left-hand side of an account constituting an addition to an expense or asset account or a deduction from a revenue, net worth, or liability account. Credit It signifies the providing of a benefit. In simple words it is the right hand side. CREDIT, in accounting, is an accounting entry system that either decreases assets or increases liabilities; in general, it is an arrangement for deferred payment for goods and services. Dual Aspect of Transactions For every debit there is an equal credit. This is also called the dual aspect of the transaction i.e. every transaction has two aspects, debit and credit and they are always equal. This means that every transaction should have two-sided effect. For example Mr. A starts his business and he initially invests Rupees 100,000/- in cash for his business. Out of this cash following items are purchased in cash; o A building for Rupees 50,000/-; o Furniture for Rupees 10,000/-; and o A vehicle for Rupees 15,000/- This means that he has spent a total of Rupees 75,000/- and has left with Rupees 25,000 cash. We will apply the Dual Aspect Concept on these events from the viewpoint of business. When Mr. A invested Rupees 100,000/-, the cash account benefited from him. The event will be recorded in the books of business as,

Debit Cash Rs.100, 000 Credit Mr. A Rs.100, 000 Analyse the transaction. The account that received the benefit, in this case is the cash account, and the account that provided the benefit is that of Mr. A. • Building purchased – The building account benefited from cash account Debit Building Rs.50, 000 Credit Cash Rs.50, 000 • Furniture purchased – The furniture account benefited from cash account Debit Furniture Rs.10, 000 Credit Cash Rs.10, 000 • Vehicle purchased – The vehicle account benefited from cash account Debit Vehicle Rs.15, 000 Credit Cash Rs.15, 000 Basic Principle of Double Entry We can devise the basic principle of double entry book-keeping from our discussion to this point “Every Debit has a Credit” which means that “All Debits are always equal to All Credits”. Assets Assets are the properties and possessions of the business. Properties and possessions can be of two types: o Tangible Assets that have physical existence ( are further divided into Fixed Assets and Current Assets) o Intangible Assets that have no physical existence Examples of both are as follows: o Tangible Assets – Furniture, Vehicle etc. o Intangible Assets – Patents, Copyrights, Goodwill etc. Accounting Equation From the above example, if the debits and credits are added up, the situation will be as follows: Debits Cash Rs.100,000/- Building 50,000/- Furniture 10,000/- Vehicle 15,000/- Credits Mr. A Rs.100, 000/- Cash 75,000/-

The total Equation becomes: • DEBITS = CREDITS Cash + Building + Furniture + Vehicle = Cash + Mr. A 100000 + 50000 + 10000 + 15000 = 75000 + 100,000 Cash on Left Hand Side is Rupees 100,000/- and on Right Hand Side it is Rs.75, 000/-. If it is gathered on the Left Hand Side it will give a positive figure of Rupees 25,000/- (which you will notice is our balance of cash in hand). Now the equation becomes: DEBITS = CREDITS Cash + Building + Furniture+ Vehicle = Mr. A 25,000 + 50,000 + 10,000 + 15,000 = 100,000 Keeping the entity concept in mind we can see that the business owns the building, furniture, vehicle and cash and will obtain benefit from these things in future. Any thing that provides benefit to the business in future is called ‘Asset’. Similarly the business had obtained the money from Mr. A and this money will have to be returned in form of either cash or benefits. Any thing for which the business has to repay in any form is called ‘Liability’. So cash, building, furniture and vehicle are the assets of the business and the amount received from Mr. A for which the business will have to provide a return or benefit is the liability of the business. Therefore, our equation becomes: Assets = Liabilities The liabilities of the business can be classified into two major classes i.e. the amounts payable to ‘outsiders’ and those payable to the ‘owners’. The liability of the business towards its owners is called ‘Capital’ and amount payable to outsiders is called liability. Therefore, our accounting equation finally becomes: Assets = Capital + Liabilities

CLASSIFICATION OF ACCOUNTS Learning Objective This lecture will cover o Classification of accounts into Assets, Liabilities, Income and Expenses, and o Rules of Debit and Credit for these classes. Account An accounting system keeps separate record of each item like assets, liabilities, etc. For example, a separate record is kept for cash that shows increase and decrease in it. This record that summarizes movement in an individual item is called an Account. Classification of Accounts The accounts are classified into following heads: o Assets o Liabilities o Income o Expenses (further divided into capital and revenue expenses) Assets Assets are the properties and possessions of the business to pay in future. Can be amount payable for material purchased, expenses etc. Properties and possessions can be of two types: o Tangible Assets that have physical existence (are further divided into Fixed Assets and Current Assets). o Intangible Assets that have no physical existence Examples of both are as follows: o Tangible Assets – Furniture, Vehicle etc. o Intangible Assets – Right to receive money, Good will etc. Liabilities Liabilities are the debts and obligations of the business. Liability is the obligation of the business to provide a benefit or asset on a future date. Asset is a right to receive and liability is an obligation to pay, therefore, these are opposite to each other. Accounting Equation Assets are created out of capital invested plus liability to third party. Assets = Liabilities + Owner’s equity Income Income / Revenue is the value of goods or services that a business charges from its customers Or the reward / return received from the resources committed in the business. Expenses Expenses are the costs incurred to earn the revenue. The resources spent and the efforts made to earn the income, when translated in money terms are the expenses of the business Profit Profit is the excess of income over expenses in a specific period.

Loss Loss is the excess of expenses over income in a specific period. Capital Expenditure It is the expenditure to create an asset that helps in generating future income and its life is more than 12 month. For example machinery purchases, furniture purchases etc. OR Capital Expenditure is the amount used during a particular period to acquire or improve long-term assets such as property, plant or equipment. Revenue Expenditure It is the day to day expenses whose benefit is drawn immediately. For example, salary of the employee, rent of the building, etc. OR Revenue Expenditure is the cost of resources consumed or used up in the process of generating revenue, generally referred to as expenses. Rules of Debit and Credit From our discussion up to this point, we have established following rules for Debit and Credit: Any account that obtains a benefit is Debit. OR Anything that will provide benefit to the business is Debit. Both these statements may look different but in fact if we consider that whenever an account benefits as a result of a transaction, it will have to return that benefit to the business then both the statements will look like different sides of the same picture. For credit, Any account that provides a benefit is Credit. OR Anything to which the business has a responsibility to return a benefit in future is Credit. As explained in the case of Debit, whenever an account provides benefit to the business the business will have a responsibility to return that benefit at some time in future and so it is Credit. Rules of Debit and Credit for Assets Similarly we have established that whenever a business transfers a value / benefit to an account and as a result creates some thing that will provide future benefit; the ‘thing’ is termed as Asset. By combining both these rules we can devise following rules of Debit and Credit for Assets: o When an asset is created or purchased, value / benefit is transferred to that account, so it is Debited i. Increase in Asset is Debit o Reversing the above situation if the asset is sold, which is termed as disposing off, for say cash, the asset account provides benefit to the cash account. Therefore, the asset account is Credited ii. Decrease in Asset is Credit Rules of Debit and Credit for Liabilities

Anything that transfers value to the business, and in turn creates a responsibility on part of the business to return a benefit, is a Liability. Therefore, liabilities are the exact opposite of the assets. o When a liability is created the benefit is provided to business by that account so it is Credited iii. Increase in Liability is Credit o When the business returns the benefit or repays the liability, the liability account benefits from the business. So it is Debited iv. Decrease in Liability is Debit Rules of Debit and Credit for Expenses Just like assets, we have to pay for expenses. From assets, we draw benefit for a long time whereas the benefit from expenses is for a short run. Therefore, Expenditure is just like Asset but for a short run. Using our rule for Debit and Credit, when we pay cash for any expense that expense account benefits from cash, therefore, it is debited. o Now we can lay down our rule for Expenditure: v. Increase in Expenditure is Debit o Reversing the above situation, if we return any item that we had purchased, we will receive cash in return. Cash account will receive benefit from that Expenditure account. Therefore, Expenditure account will be credited vi. Decrease in Expenditure is Credit Rules of Debit and Credit for Income Income accounts are exactly opposite to expense accounts just as liabilities are opposite to that of assets. Therefore, using the same principle we can draw our rules of Debit and Credit for Income vii. Increase in Income is Credit viii. Decrease in Income is Debit

FLOW OF TRANSACTIONS Learning Objective This lecture will cover following areas: o An overview of the flow of transactions. o An introduction to the basic books of accounts. o The General Ledger, and o The ledger balance Event Event is the happening of any thing but in accounting we discuss monetary events Monetary Events If the financial position of a business is change due to the happening of event that Event is called Monetary Event The Voucher Voucher is documentary evidence in a specific format that records the details of a transaction. It is accompanied by the evidence of transaction.

The General Journal The Journal is used to record financial transactions in chronological (day-to-day) order. All vouchers were first recorded in books of accounts. It was also called the Book of Original Entry or Day Book. But in present day accounting and especially with the introduction of computers for accounting, this book is not in use any more. General Ledger – The ‘T’ Account Ledger – is a book that keeps separate record for each account (Book of Accounts). The Account or Head of Account is systematic record of transactions of one type. An account in its simplest form is a T-shape and looks like this: A Standard General Ledger Since the ledger keeps record of transactions that affect one head of account, therefore, it should provide all the information that a user may need. Usually the ledger is required to provide following information: o Title of account o Ledger page number, called Ledger Folio / Account Code o Date of transaction o Voucher number o Narration / particulars of transaction o Amount of transaction

BASIC BOOKS OF ACCOUNTS Areas Covered in this lecture: • Cash book and bank book. • Accounting Period. • Trial Balance and its limitations. Flow of Transactions: In Financial Accounting, any business transaction flows as follows: 1. The business transaction is recorded in a voucher. The voucher is the first document prepared in the financial accounting. 2. All financial transactions are then posted in the journal from vouchers. 3. In these days, voucher is directly fed in the books of accounts by means of computers. Otherwise ledgers are prepared for each account from the Journal. 4. From the books of accounts, trial balance is prepared, which shows the arithmetic accuracy of the accounting system. 5. Finally, financial statements. i.e., Profit & Loss Account and Balance Sheet is prepared from trial balance. Cash Book & Bank Book Cash book and bank book are part of general ledger. All entries including payables and receivables are recorded in the general ledger. Expenses, income, assets and liabilities are recorded in different head of accounts to analyze the expenses incurred in different head of accounts. Due to large volume of transactions, entries related to cash and banks are recorded in the separate books. Cash Book All cash transactions (receipts and payments) are recorded in the cash book. Cash book balance shows the amount of cash in hand at a particular time.

Two formats of cash book are shown above. In the first format, receipt side and payment side are shown separately. In the second format, two columns are shown for receipt and payment with an extra column of balance. The balance column shows the net balance of cash available for use. The ledger code shows the code of that head of account which contains the second effect of the cash transactions because debits and credits are always equal in financial accounting. Both of these formats are correct. A business can use any format considering its policies and requirements. Bank Book All bank transactions (receipts & payments) are recorded in the bank book. The balance of bank book reflects the cash available at bank at a particular time. Format of bank book is hereunder: Bank Book (Bank Account Number) Account Code 02 Date Voucher Number Chq. No. Narration / Particulars Ledger Code Receipt Amount Payment Amount Balance Dr/(Cr) The format of bank book is same as that of cash book except the column of cheque no. This column is added in the format because all payments are made by cheque and the number of cheque is written in that column in order to keep the accounting record updated. Accounting Period Accounting period is any period for which a Financial Statements are prepared. The length of the accounting period can be anything between one day to one year. The legal or statutory definition of accounting year is a maximum of one year. The only exception in this case is the formation of a new company which is formed before the start of accounting period. Financial year (A period of 12 month duration) In Pakistan, financial year starts from 1st of July and ends on 30th of June. Exceptions are for specialized business such as textile mills, banks, Sugar mills etc. Financial reports can be made for a week or a month, depending upon the requirements of the company. Debit & Credit Balances It has already been mentioned that both sides i.e. Debit and credit side of a ledger must be equal. If debit side of a ledger is greater than credit side, the balance will be written on the credit side and it will be called Debit Balance. The reason being, the balance is written on the credit side because of excessive debit balance. Therefore, it is called Debit Balance

Trial Balance At the end of accounting period, a list of all ledger balances is prepared. This list is called trial Balance. Trial balance is a listing of the accounts in your general ledger and their balances as of a specified date. A trial balance is usually prepared at the end of an accounting period and is used to see if additional adjustments are required to any of the balances. Since the basic accounting system relies on double-entry bookkeeping, a trial balance will have the same total debit amount as it has total credit amounts. Both sides of trial balance i.e. Debit side and credit side must be equal. If both sides are not equal, there are some errors in the books of accounts. Trial balance shows the mathematical accuracy of the books of accounts. Limitations of Trial Balance 1. Trial balance only shows the mathematical accuracy of the accounts. 2. If both sides of trial balance are equal, books of accounts are considered to be correct. But this might not be true in all the cases. 3. If any transaction is not recorded at all, trial balance can not detect the omitted transaction. 4. If any transaction is recorded in the wrong head e.g. if an expense is debited to an assets account. Trial balance will not be able to detect that mistake too.

INTRODUCTION TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS Learning Objective After studying this chapter, you will be able to: o Draw up Profit & Loss account from the information given in trial balance. o Differentiate the term, Receipt & Payment, Income & Expenditure and Profit & Loss account. Financial Statements Different reports generated from the books of accounts to provide information to the relevant persons. Every business is carried out to make profit. If it is not run successfully, it will sustain loss. The calculation of such profit & loss is probably the most important objective of the accounting function. Such information is acquired from “Financial Statements”. Financial Statements are the end product of the whole accounting process. These show us the profitability of the business concern and the financial position of the entity at a specified date. The most commonly used Financial Statements are ‘profit & loss account’ ‘balance sheet’ & ‘cash flow statement’. Profit & Loss Account Profit & Loss account is an account that summarizes the profitability of the organization for a specific accounting period. Profit & Loss account has two parts: o First part is called Trading account in which Gross Profit is calculated. Gross profit is the excess of sales over cost of goods sold in an accounting period. In trading concern, cost of goods sold is the cost of goods consumed plus any other charge paid in bringing the goods in salable condition. For example, if business purchased certain items for resale purpose and any expense is paid in respect of carriage or bringing the goods in store (transportation charges). These will also be grouped under the heading of ‘cost of goods sold’ and will become part of its price. In manufacturing concern, cost of goods sold comprises of purchase of raw material plus wages paid to staff employed for converting this raw material into finished goods plus any other expense in this connection. o 2nd part is called Profit & Loss account in which Net Profit is calculated. Net Profit is what is left of the gross profit after deducting all other expenses of the organization in a specific time period. How to prepare Profit & Loss Account? One way is to write down all the Debit and Credit entries of Income and Expense accounts in the Profit and Loss Account. But it is not sensible to do so. The other way is that we calculate the net balance or we can say Closing Balance of each income and expense account. Then we note all the credit balances on the credit side and all the debit balances on the debit of profit and loss account. If the net balance of profit and loss is Credit (credit side is greater than debit side) it is Profit and if the net balance is Debit (Debit side is greater than credit side) it is a loss. Income, Expenditure, Profit & Loss Income is the value of goods and services earned from the operation of the business. It includes both cash & credit. For example, if a business entity deals in garments. What it earns from the sale of garments, is its income. If somebody is rendering services, what he earned from rendering services is his income. Expenses are the resources and the efforts made to earn the income, translated in monetary terms. It includes both expenses, i.e., paid and to be paid (payable). Consider the above mentioned example, if any sum is spent in running the garments business effectively or in provision of services

MTH101 Book

TABLE OF CONTENTS : Lesson 1 :Coordinates, Graphs, Lines 3 Lesson 2 :Absolute Value 15 Lesson 3 :Coordinate Planes and Graphs 24 Lesson 4 :Lines 34 Lesson 5 :Distance; Circles, Quadratic Equations 45 Lesson 6 :Functions and Limits 57 Lesson 7 :Operations on Functions 63 Lesson 8 :Graphing Functions 69 Lesson 9 :Limits (Intuitive Introduction) 76 Lesson 10:Limits (Computational Techniques) 84 Lesson 11: Limits (Rigorous Approach) 93 Lesson 12 :Continuity 97 Lesson 13 :Limits and Continuity of Trigonometric Functions 104 Lesson 14 :Tangent Lines, Rates of Change 110 Lesson 15 :The Derivative 115 Lesson 16 :Techniques of Differentiation 123 Lesson 17 :Derivatives of Trigonometric Function 128 Lesson 18 :The chain Rule 132 Lesson 19 :Implicit Differentiation 136 Lesson 20 :Derivative of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions 139 Lesson 21 :Applications of Differentiation 145 Lesson 22 :Relative Extrema 151 Lesson 23 :Maximum and Minimum Values of Functions 158 Lesson 24 :Newton’s Method, Rolle’s Theorem and Mean Value Theorem 164 Lesson 25 :Integrations 169 Lesson 26 :Integration by Substitution 174 Lesson 27 :Sigma Notation 179 Lesson 28 :Area as Limit 183 Lesson 29 :Definite Integral 191 Lesson 30 :First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 200 Lesson 31 :Evaluating Definite Integral by Subsitution 206 Lesson 32 :Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus 210 Lesson 33 :Application of Definite Integral 214 Lesson 34 :Volume by slicing; Disks and Washers 221 Lesson 35 :Volume by Cylindrical Shells 230 Lesson 36 :Length of Plane Curves 237 Lesson 37 :Area of Surface of Revolution 240 Lesson 38:Work and Definite Integral 245 Lesson 39 :Improper Integral 252 Lesson 40 :L’Hopital’s Rule 258 Lesson 41 :Sequence 265 Lesson 42 :Infinite Series 276 Lesson 43 :Additional Convergence tests 285 Lesson 44 :Alternating Series; Conditional Convergence 290 Lesson 45 :Taylor and Maclaurin Series 296


Lecture 1
Coordinates, Graphs and Lines
What is Calculus??
Well, it is the study of the continuous rates of the change of quantities. It is the study of how various
quantities change with respect to other quantities. For example, one would like to know how distance changes
with respect to (from now onwards we will use the abbreviation w.r.t) time, or how time changes w.r.t speed,
or how water flow changes w.r.t time etc. You want to know how this happens continuously. We will see
what continuously means as well.
In this lecture, we will talk about the following topics:
-Real Numbers
-Set Theory
-Order Properties of Real Numbers
Let’s start talking about Real Numbers. We will not talk about the COMPLEX or IMANGINARY
numbers, although your text has something about them which you can read on your own. We will go through
the history of REAL numbers and how they popped into the realm of human intellect. We will look at the
various types of REALS – as we will now call them. So Let’s START.
The simplest numbers are the natural numbers
Natural Numbers
1, 2, 3, 4, 5,…
They are called the natural numbers because they are the first to have crossed paths with human intellect.
Think about it: these are the numbers we count things with. So our ancestors used these numbers first to
count, and they came to us naturally! Hence the name
The natural numbers form a subset of a larger class of numbers called the integers. I have used the word
SUBSET. From now onwards we will just think of SET as a COLLECTION OF THINGS.
This could be a collection of oranges, apples, cars, or politicians. For example, if I have the SET of politicians
then a SUBSET will be just a part of the COLLECTION. In mathematical notation we say A is subset of B if
∀∈ ⇒ ∈ xA xB .Then we write A B ⊆ .
The collection of well defined objects is called a set. For example

{George Bush, Toney Blair, Ronald Reagoan}
A portion of a set B is a subset of A iff every member of B is a member of A. e.g. one subset of above set is
{George Bush, Tony Blair}
The curly brackets are always used for denoting SETS. We will get into the basic notations and ideas of sets
later. Going back to the Integers. These are
…, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,…
So these are just the natural numbers, plus a 0, and the NEGATIVES of the natural numbers.
The reason we didn’t have 0 in the natural numbers is that this number itself has an interesting
story, from being labeled as the concept of the DEVIL in ancient Greece, to being easily accepted in the
Indian philosophy, to being promoted in the use of commerce and science by the Arabs and the Europeans.
But here, we accept it with an open heart into the SET of INTEGERS.
What about these NEGATIVE Naturals??? Well, they are an artificial construction. They also have a history
of their own. For a long time, they would creep up in the solutions of simple equations like
x+2 = 0. The solution is x = – 2
So now we have the Integers plus the naturals giving us things we will call REAL numbers. But that’s not all.
There is more. The integers in turn are a subset of a still larger class of numbers called the rational numbers.
With the exception that division by zero is ruled out, the rational numbers are formed by taking ratios of
Examples are
2/3, 7/5, 6/1, -5/2
Observe that every integer is also a rational number because an integer p can be written as a ratio. So
every integer is also a rational. Why not divide by 0? Well here is why:
If x is different from zero, this equation is contradictory; and if x is equal to zero, this equation is satisfied by
any number y, so the ratio does not have a unique value a situation that is mathematically unsatisfactory.
x yx yx / 0 0. 0 = ⇒ = ⇒ =
For these reasons such symbols are not assigned a value; they are said to be undefined.
So we have some logical inconsistencies that we would like to avoid. I hope you see that!! Hence, no
division by 0 allowed! Now we come to a very interesting story in the history of the development of Real
numbers. The discovery of IRRATIONAL numbers.
Pythagoras was an ancient Greek philosopher and mathematician. He studied the properties of numbers for
its own sake, not necessarily for any applied problems. This was a major change in mathematical thinking as

math now took on a personality of its own. Now Pythagoras got carried away a little, and developed an
almost religious thought based on math. He concluded that the size of a physical quantity must consist of a
certain whole number of units plus some fraction m / n of an additional unit. Now rational numbers have a
unique property that if you convert them to decimal notation, the numbers following the decimal either end
quickly, or repeat in a pattern forever.
1/2 =0.500000… =0.5
1/3= 0.33333…
This fit in well with Pythagoras’ beliefs. All is well. But this idea was shattered in the fifth century B.C. by
Hippasus of Metapontum who demonstrated the existence of irrational numbers, that is, numbers that cannot
be expressed as the ratio of integers.
Using geometric methods, he showed that the hypotenuse of the right triangle with base and opposite
side equal to 1 cannot be expressed as the ratio of integers, thereby proving that 2 is an IRRATIONAL
number. The hypotenuse of this right triangle can be expressed as the ratio of integers.

Other examples of irrational numbers are
0 Cos + 19 ,1 2
The rational and irrational numbers together comprise a larger class of numbers, called REAL NUMBERS or
sometimes the REAL NUMBER SYSTEM.So here is a pictorial summary of the hierarchy of REAL

In the 1600’s, analytic geometry was “developed”. It gave a way of describing algebraic formulas by geometric
curves and, conversely, geometric curves by algebraic formulas. So basically you could DRAW PICTURES
The developer of this idea was the French mathematician, Descartes .The story goes that he wanted
to find out as to what Made humans HUMANS?? Well, he is said to have seated himself in a 17th century
furnace (it was not burning at the time!) and cut himself from the rest of the world. In this world of cold and
darkness, he felt all his senses useless. But he could still think!!!! So he concluded that his ability to think is
what made him human, and then he uttered the famous line : “ I THINK, THEREFORE I AM” .In analytic
geometry , the key step is to establish a correspondence between real numbers and points on a line. We do
this by arbitrarily designating one of the two directions along the line as the positive direction and the other as

the negative direction.
So we draw a line, and call the RIGHT HAND SIDE as POSITIVE DIRECTION, and the LEFT HAND
SIDE as NEGATIVE DIRECTION. We could have done it the other way around too. But, since what we
just did is a cultural phenomenon where right is + and left is -, we do it this way. Moreover, this has now

a standard in doing math, so anything else will be awkward to deal with. The positive direction is usually
marked with an arrowhead so we do that too. Then we choose an arbitrary point and take that as our point
of reference.
We call this the ORIGIN, and mark it with the number 0. So we have made our first correspondence
between a real number and a point on the Line. Now we choose a unit of measurement, say 1 cm. It can be
anything really. We use this unit of measurement to mark of the rest of the numbers on the line. Now this
line, the origin, the positive direction, and the unit of measurement define what is called a coordinate line or
sometimes a real line.
With each real number we can now associate a point on the line as fo1lows:

• Associate the origin with the number 0.
• Associate with each positive number r the point that is a distance of r units (this is the unit we
chose, say 1 cm) in the positive direction from the origin.
• Associate with each negative number ‘- r ’ the point that is a distance of r units in the negative
direction from the origin.
The real number corresponding to a point on the line is called the coordinate of the point.
Example 1:
In Figure we have marked the locations of the points with coordinates -4, -3, -1.75, -0.5, π , 2 and 4. The
locations ofπ and 2 which are approximate, were obtained from their decimal approximations,
π = 3.14 and 2 = 1.41

It is evident from the way in which real numbers and points on a coordinate line are related that each real
number corresponds to a single point and each point corresponds to a single real number. To describe this
fact we say that the real numbers and the points on a coordinate line are in one-to-one correspondence.
Order Properties
In mathematics, there is an idea of ORDER of a SET. We won’t go into the general
concept, since that involves SET THEORY and other high level stuff. But we will define the ORDER of the
real number set as follows:
For any two real numbers a and b, if b-a is positive, then we say that b > a or that a < b.
Here I will assume that we are all comfortable working with the symbol “<” which is read as “less than” and
the symbol “>” which is read as “greater than.” I am assuming this because this stuff was covered in algebra
before Calculus. So with this in mind we can write the above statement as

If b – a is positive, then we say that b > a or that a < b.A statement involving < or > are called an
INEQUALITY .Note that the inequality a < b can also be expressed as b > a.
So ORDER of the real number set in a sense defines the SIZE of a real number relative to another real
number in the set. The SIZE of a real number a makes sense only when it is compared with another real b. So
the ORDER tells you how to “ORDER” the numbers in the SET and also on the COORDINATE
A little more about inequalities. The inequality a b ≤ is defined to mean that either a < b or a = b.
So there are two conditions here. For example, the inequality 2 6 ≤ would be read as 2 is less than or it is
equal to 6. We know that it’s less than 6, so the inequality is true. SO IF ONE OF THE CONDITIONS IS
TRUE, THEN THE INEQUALITY WILL BE TRUE, We can say a similar thing about. The expression a <
b < c is defined to mean that a < b and b < c. It is also read as “b is between a and c”.
As one moves along the coordinate line in the positive direction, the real numbers increase in size. In other
words, the real numbers are ordered in an ascending manner on the number line, just as they are in the SET
of REAL NUMBERS. So that on a horizontal coordinate line the inequality a < b implies that a is to the left
of b, and the inequality a < b < c implies that a is to the left of b and b is to the left of c.
The symbol a < b < c means a < b and b < c. I will leave it to the reader to deduce the meanings of such
symbols as ≤ and ≥ .
Here is an example of INEQUALITIES.


a A a is NOT an element of the set A ∉

∅ represents the Empty set, or the set that contains nothing.
A B ∪ represents the SET of all the elements of the Set A and the Set B taken together.
A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7}, then, A ∪ B = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7}
A B ∩ represents the SET of all those elements that are in Set A AND in Set B.
A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7}, then A ∩ B = {1,2,3,4}
A = B means the A is exactly the same set as B
A = {1,2,3,4} and B = {1,2,3,4}, then A = C
and A B ⊂ means that the Set A is contained in the Set B. Recall the example we did of the Set of all
{George Bush, Tony Blair} ⊂ {George Bush, Toney Blair, Ronald Reagoan}
One way to specify the idea of a set is to list its members between braces. Thus, the set of all positive integers
less than 5 can be written as
{ 1, 2, 3, 4}
and the set of all positive even integers can be written as
{ 2, 4, 6, …}
where the dots are used to indicate that only some of the members are explicitly and the rest can be obtained
by continuing the pattern. So here the pattern is that the set consists of the even numbers, and the next
element must be 8, then 10, and then so on. When it is inconvenient or impossible to list the members of a
set, as would be if the set is infinite, then one can use the set- builder notation. This is written as
{ x : _________ }
which is read as “the set of all x such that ______” , In place of the line, one would state a property that
specifies the set, Thus,
{ x : x is real number and 2 < x < 3}
is read, “the set of all x such that x is a real number and 2 < x < 3,” Now we know by now that

2 < x < 3 means that all the x between 2 and 3.
This specifies the “description of the elements of the set” This notation describes the set, without actually
writing down all its elements.
When it is clear that the members of a set are real numbers, we will omit the reference to this fact. So we will
write the above set as Intervals.
We have had a short introduction of Sets. Now we look particular kind of sets that play a crucial role in
Calculus and higher math. These sets are sets of real numbers called intervals. What is an interval?
{ x: 2< x< 3}
Well, geometrically, an interval is a line segment on the co-ordinate line. S if a and b are real numbers such that a
< b, then an interval will be just the line segment joining a and b.

But if things were only this simple! Intervals are of various types. For example, the question might be raised
whether a and b are part of the interval? Or if a is, but b is not?? Or maybe both are?
Well, this is where we have to be technical and define the following:
The closed interval from a to b is denoted by [a, b] and is defined as
[, ] : } ab xa x b = { ≤ ≤
Geometrically this is the line segment

So this includes the numbers a and b, a and b a are called the END- POINTS of the interval.
The open interval from a to b is denoted by and is defined by
(a, b) = { x: a < x < b}
This excludes the numbers a and b. The square brackets indicate that the end points are included in the
interval and the parentheses indicate that they are not.
Here are various sorts of intervals that one finds in mathematics. In this picture, the geometric pictures use
solid dots to denote endpoints that are included in the interval and open dots to denote endpoints that are

As shown in the table, an interval can extend indefinitely in either the positive direction, the negative
direction, or both. The symbols −∞ (read “negative infinity”) and +∞ (read , ‘positive infinity’ ‘) do not
represent numbers: the +∞ indicates that the interval extends indefinitely in the positive direction, and the
−∞ indicates that it extends indefinitely in the negative direction.
An interval that goes on forever in either the positive or the negative directions, or both, on the coordinate
line or in the set of real numbers is called an INFINITE interval. Such intervals have the symbol for infinity
at either end points or both, as is shown in the table
An interval that has finite real numbers as end points are called finite intervals.
A finite interval that includes one endpoint but not the other is called half-open (or sometimes half-closed).
[ , ), ( , ), ( , ], ( , ) a a bb + ∞ − ∞ −∞ −∞
Infinite intervals of the form [, ) a + ∞ and ( ,] −∞ b are considered to be closed because they contain their
endpoint. Those of the form (, ) a − ∞ and ( ,) −∞ b has no endpoints; it is regarded to be both open and
closed. As one of my Topology Instructors used to say:
“A set is not a DOOR! It can be OPEN, it can be CLOSED, and it can be OPEN and CLOSED!!
Let’s remember this fact for good!” Let’s look at the picture again for a few moments and digest the

information. PAUSE 10 seconds.
We have talked about Inequalities before. Let’s talk some more. First Let’s look at an inequality involving and
unknown quantity, namely x. Here is one: x < 5,x = 1, is a solution of this inequality as 1 makes it true, but
x = 7 is not. So the set of all solutions of an inequality is called its solution set. The solution set of x < 5 will

It is a fact, though we wont prove this that if one does not multiply both sides of an inequality by zero or an
expression involving an unknown, then the operations in Theorem 1.1.1 will not change the solution set of
the inequality. The process of finding the solution set of an inequality is called solving the Inequality.
Let’s do some fun stuff, like some concrete example to make things a bit more focused
Example 4.
37 2 9 +≤− x x
We shall use the operations of Theorem 1.1.1 to isolate x on one side of the inequality
7 2 12 3
5 12 2
12 / 5 5
x x Subtracting from both sides
x Subtracting x from both sides
x Dividing both sides by
≤ −
≤ −
≤ −
Because we have not multiplied by any expressions involving the unknown x, the last inequality has the same
solution set as the first. Thus, the solution set is the interval shown in Figure 1.1.6.
Solve 7 25 9 ≤− <x
Solution ; The given inequality is actually a combination of the two inequalities
7 25 25 9 ≤ − − < x and x
We could solve the two inequalities separately, then determine the value of x that satisfy both by taking the
intersection of the solution sets , however, it is possible to work with the combined inequality in this problem

Lecture # 2
Absolute Value
In this lecture we shall discuss the notation of Absolute Value. This concept plays an important role in
algebraic computations involving radicals and in determining the distance between points on a coordinate
The absolute vale or magnitude of a real number a is denoted by |a| and is defined by
0, , | | 0, , .
a if a that is a is non negative
a if a that is a is positive
 ≥ −
= 
− <
Technically, 0 is considered neither positive, nor negative in Mathematics. It is called a non-negative number.
Hence whenever we want to talk about a real number a such that a ≥ 0, we call a non-negative, and positive
if a > 0.
5 5 = , − =−− = 4 44 ( ) 7 77 , 0 0 =
since 5>0 since -4/7 < 0 since 0 ≥ 0
Note that the effect of taking the absolute value of a number is to strip away the minus sign if the number is
negative and to leave the number unchanged if it is non-negative. Thus, |a| is a non-negative number for all
values of a and − ≤≤ aaa , if ‘a’ is itself is negative, then ‘–a’ is positive and ‘+a’ is negative.

Caution: Symbols such as +a and –a are deceptive, since it is tempting to conclude that +a is positive and –a
is negative. However this need not be so, since a itself can represent either a positive or negative number. In
fact , if a itself is negative, then –a is positive and +a is negative.
Solve x − = 3 4
Depending on whether x-3 is positive or negative , the equation |x-3| = 4 can be written as
x-3 = 4 or x-3 = -4
Solving these two equations give
x=7 and x=-1
Solve 3 25 4 x x −= +
Because two numbers with the same absolute value are either equal or differ only in sign, the given
equation will be satisfied if either

Relationship between Square Roots and Absolute Values :
Recall that a number whose square is a is called a square root of a.
In algebra it is learned that every positive real number a has two real square roots, one positive and one
negative. The positive square root is denoted by a For example, the number 9 has two square roots, -3
and 3. Since 3 is the positive square root, we have 9 3 = .
In addition, we define 0 0 = .
It is common error to write 2
a a = . Although this equality is correct when a is nonnegative, it is false for
negative a. For example, if a=-4, then 2 2
a a = − = =≠ ( 4) 16 4
The positive square root of the square of a number is equal to that number.
A result that is correct for all a is given in the following theorem.
For any real number a, 2
a a =
Proof :
Since a2 = (+a)2 = (-a)2, the number +a and –a are square roots of a2. If a ≥ 0 , then +a is
nonnegative square root of a2, and if a < 0 , then -a is nonnegative square root of a2. Since 2
denotes the nonnegative square root of a2, we have
a a if a
a a if a
= + ≥
= − <
That is, 2
a a =
Properties of Absolute Value
If a and b are real numbers, then
(a) |-a| = |a|, a number and its negative have the same absolute value.
(b) |ab| = |a| |b|, the absolute value of a product is the product of absolute values.
(c) |a/b| = |a|/|b|, the absolute value of the ratio is the ratio of the absolute values

Proof (a) :
2 2 | | ( ) || − = − = = a a aa
Proof (b) :
2 22 2 2 ab ab a b a b a b = = = = ( )
This result can be extended to three or more factors. More precisely, for any n real numbers,
a1,a2,a3,……an, it follows that
|a1a2…..an| = |a1| |a2| …….|an|
In special case where a1, a2,…….,an have the same value, a, it follows from above equation that

Geometric Interpretation Of Absolute Value
The notation of absolute value arises naturally in distance problems, since distance is always
nonnegative. On a coordinate line, let A and B be points with coordinates a and b, the distance d between A

As shown in figure b-a is positive, so b-a=|b-a| ; in the second case b-a is negative, so
a-b = -(b-a) = |b-a| .
Thus, in all cases we have the following result:
(Distance Formula)
If A and B are points on a coordinate line with coordinates a and b, respectively, then the distance d between
A and B is
d = |b-a|
This formula provides a useful geometric interpretation
Of some common mathematical expressions given in table here
|x-a| The distance between x and a
|x+a| The distance between x and -a
|x| The distance between x and origin
Inequalities of the form |x-a|<k and |x-a|>k arise often, so we have summarized the key facts about them
here in following table

It is not generally true that a b a b
For example if a and b then a b
so that a b
a b
so a b a b
+= +
= =− + =−
+ =− =
= = +− = + =
+≠ +
It is true, however, that the absolute value of a sum is always less than or equal to the sum of the absolute
values. This is the content of the following very important theorem, known as the triangle inequality . This
IN QUANTUM PHYSICS, so make sure you understand it fully.
(Triangle Inequality)
If a and b are any real numbers, then
ab a b +≤ +
Remember the following inequalities we saw earlier .
− ≤≤ − ≤≤ aaa bbb and
Let’s add these two together. We get
( ) ( ) (B)
aaa bbb
a b ab a b
− ≤≤ + − ≤≤
= − +− ≤ + ≤ +
Since a and b are real numbers, adding them will also result in a real number. Well, there are two types of real
numbers. What are they?? Remember!!!!! They are either > = 0, or they are < 0! Ok!!
SO we have
a + b or a + b < ≥ 0 0
In the first of these cases where a + b ≥ 0 certainly a + b = a + b
by definition of absolute value. so the right-hand inequality in (B) gives
ab a b +≤ +
In the second case

Lecture # 3
In this lecture we will discuss
• Graphs in the coordinate plane.
• Intercepts.
• Symmetry Plane.
We begin with the Coordinate plane. Just as points on a line can be placed in one-to-one correspondence
with the real numbers, so points in the PLANE can be placed in one-to-one correspondence with pairs of
real numbers. What is a plane?
A PLANE is just the intersection of two COORDINATE lines at 90 degrees. It is technically called the
COORDINATE PLANE, but we will call it the plane also whenever it is convenient. Each line is a line with
numbers on it, so to define a point in the PLANE, we just read of the corresponding points on each line. For
example I pick a point in the plane
By an ordered pair of real numbers we mean two real numbers in an assigned order. Every point P in a
coordinate plane can be associated with a unique ordered pair of real numbers by drawing two lines through
P, one perpendicular to the x-axis and the other to the y-axis


For example if we take (a,b)=(4,3), then on coordinate plane
To plot a point P(a, b) means to locate the point with coordinates (a, b) in a coordinate plane. For example, In
the figure below we have plotted the points P(2,5), Q(-4,3), R(-5,-2), and S(4,-3).Now this idea will enable us
to visualise algebraic equations as geometric curves and, conversely, to represent geometric curves by
algebraic equations.
Labelling the axes with letters x and y is a common convention, but any letters may be used. If the letters x
and y are used to label the coordinate axes, then the resulting plane is also called an xy-plane. In applications it
is common to use letters other than x and y to label coordinate axes. Figure below shows a uv-plane and a tsplane.
The first letter in the name of the plane refers to the horizontal axis and the second to the vertical axis.

Pak301 Book

Lecture 1 Pak301 Ideology is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation. It is deeply ingrained in the social consciousness of the people. It is a set of principles, a framework of action and guidance system that gives order and meaning to life and human action. Ideology emphasizes on some particular principles, ideals and blueprint for the future. It is a review of the existing political, social and economic arrangements that create consciousness based on its principles. It legitimizes or delegitimizes certain actions and philosophies. Ideology gives nation a direction and worldview and its implementation is the responsibility of the concerned people. Ideology of Pakistan The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state. The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality in the Hindu society. The Muslims believed that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but are two social orders that produced two distinct cultures. There is no compatibility between the two. A deep study of the history of this land proves that the differences between Hindus and Muslims are not confined to the struggle for political supremacy but are also manifested in the clash of two social orders. Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart. The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state, wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH). Evolution of ‘Two Nation Theory’ Concept of Muslims as a Nation developed before the establishment of Pakistan. Pakistan was the product of this concept of nationhood rather than Pakistan creating a concept of nationhood. Retrospectively the Muslim nationalism emerged with the advent of Islam that introduced new principles pertinent to every sphere of life. It pledged the redemption of the humankind establishing a benign society based on Qur’anic teachings. The beginning of the Muslim nationalism in the Sub-Continent may be attributed to the first Indian who accepted Islam. The Arab traders had introduced the new religion, Islam, in the Indian coastal areas. Muhammad bin Qasim was the first Muslim invader who conquered some part of India and after that, Mahmud of Ghazna launched 17 attacks and opened the gate to preach Islam. The Muslim sufi (saints) like Ali Hejveri, Miran Hussain Zanjani etc. entered Sub-Continent. They, rejecting the vices in the Indian society, presented the pure practical picture of the teachings of Islam and got huge conversions. Qutub-ud-Din Aibuk permanently established Muslim dynasty in India that followed Sultanate and Mughal dynasties. Thus a strong Muslim community had emerged in India who had its own way of life, traditions, heroes, history and culture. Islam could not be absorbed in Hinduism. Deen-e-Ilahi, Bakhti movements, etc. created reaction amongst the Muslim ulama to preserve the pure Islamic character and save it from external onslaught. Role of Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi and others is noteworthy. Equality and social justice inspired conversions to Islam. The British won over the Muslim rulers due to the industrial and scientific developments and modern war strategy. The War of Independence (1857) was a shattering setback to the Indian Muslims who were held responsible for the rebellion by the British. The Muslims were put 1 into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism, the Muslim nationalism. The Muslim scholars sought to reform the teaching of Islamic law and to promote its application in a Muslim society. The prominent name among them is Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817-98) who awakened and guided his community well in time. His educational drive, the Ali-Garh movement, proved to be the best means of social mobility for the Muslim gentry under colonial rule. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded to indicate the beginning of the Indian nationalist movement under the British. The Congress worked and helped the British rule. Sir Syed advised the Muslims not to join it because, he thought, the Muslims were not in position to involve into the anti-government activities. It has been argued that Sir Syed’s fear of Hindu domination sowed the seeds for the “Two Nations Theory” later espoused by the All-India Muslim League, founded in 1906 and led to its demand for a separate state for the Muslims of India. Sir Syed argued that modern education and non-political activities might be the key to Muslim advancement. The Ali-Garh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims’ rights on the Western political lines. All India Muslim League had been founded in Dhaka to promote loyalty to the British and to protect and advance the political rights and interests of the Muslims of India. Thus the concept of ‘separate electorates’ was put forward to dawn a new day for the Indian Muslims. The Two-Nation Theory served as the basis of demand for Pakistan by the Muslims in British India. There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations. The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority. Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards. Hindi-Urdu Controversy Hindu revivalist movements turned more against the Muslims. Hindu nationalism was rival to the Muslim nationalism. The Indian nationalism forced Muslims to organize themselves politically to defend their interests effectively. After 1857, Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the major assault by the Hindus on Muslim heritage and legacy of the great Muslim Empire. Hindus were biased against Urdu as it was the Muslims’ language. They demanded Hindi as the official language replacing Urdu. There were demonstrations against Urdu by the Hindus in Banaras in 1867. It was the start of the Hindi-Urdu controversy. On the very issue, Sir Syed foretold about the unstable future of Hindu-Muslim unity. Hindus struggled vigorously to replace Urdu by Hindi in the offices. This enhanced the importance of the sense of Muslim separatism. The Muslim nationalism is manifested with the sublime principles to implement like: 1. Rule of Law, socio-economic justice, equity and fair play. 2. Equality of opportunity to all citizens irrespective of caste, sect, religion or region. 3. Religious and Cultural tolerance. 4. Respect for human dignity and rights. 5. Protection of the rights and interests of non-Muslims and freedom to practice their beliefs and religions. These principles are enshrined in the constitutions. We ought to work towards realization of these goals in reality and create institutions and processes that reflect these principles and values. #################################################### 2 Lecture 2 Pak301 Ideology of Pakistan in the Light of Statements of QUAID-I-AZAM and ALLAMA IQBAL The Development of Muslim Identity and Two-Nation Theory and Quaid-iAzam and Allama Iqbal The sense of nationhood developed among the Muslims before the establishment of Pakistan. Their goal was mostly to protect and promote their identity and interests and shape their lives in accord with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority. They adopted the strategy to get constitutional safeguards from the British against the cruel majority of Hindus but because of the antagonistic treatment from the rivals they set the goal of a separate state. Islam had central place to their further developments. The role of leadership is very important to put nation on the way. A good leadership infuses the qualities of awareness, consciousness, mobilization, sense of direction, and defense against the adversaries. The Muslims were lucky having such competent leadership. Muhammad Ali JINNAH M. A. Jinnah was a history-making leader who changed the course of history. He possessed a visionary leadership, commitment to the cause and political mobilization capacity. He was a Charismatic Leader in the real sense of the meaning. ROLE OF JINNAH Jinnah played a decisive role in articulating the Muslim demands and pursuing these faced strong opposition from the Hindus and the British. He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National Congress. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in 1913 he also joined the All India Muslim League (AIML). Now he was member of both the political parties. Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule), complete freedom from the British and on using extra-constitutional means, Jinnah resigned from the Congress in 1920. His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the Muslim demands: • Separate Electorate • One-third Seats in Central Legislature • protection of minority rights In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah retaliated forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929. He defined Muslim identity and mobilized them with reference to Islam and convinced others that Muslims are different from the Hindus and the Congress. Islamic principles, concepts and symbols surfaced in his speeches and statements. Jinnah used the term NATION for the Muslims of India in Feb 1935 (Legislative Assembly). He argued that the combination of religion, culture, race, arts, music and so forth make a minority a SEPARATE ENTITY. In March 1936 Bombay, he stated that the Muslims could arrive at a settlement with Hindus as TWO Nations. In 1937, he asserted that there is also a third party in India, the Muslims. In 1939, he roared that the Muslims and Hindus are two nations and they are going to live as a nation and playing part as a nation: We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and literature, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral code, custom and calendar, history and tradition, aptitudes and ambitions; in 3 short, we have our own distinctive outlook on life and of life. By all cannons of international law, we are a nation. Speeches and statements: 1940-47 Jinnah believed in the force of Islam as he said that Islam is a dynamic force that can unite the Muslims. It can help to overcome the present crisis. It’s a source of inspiration and guidance providing ethical foundation, a framework, social order and civilization. Guidance & inspiration for constitution-making and Governance He also talked of the modern notions of state, constitution, civil and political rights and democracy. He assured that constitution of Pakistan would be framed by the elected assembly. Modern democratic and Islamic State He gave assurance of equality of all citizens and rights and freedom to religious minorities in the new state. ALLAMA IQBAL: POET AND PHILOSOPHER VISION OF A SEPARATE MUSLIM STATE Men like Allama Iqbal are born but in centuries. He was conscious of significance of Islam in lives of the Muslims. His first public appearance was in 1899 at the annual session of Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam in Lahore when he presented the poem, Nala-i-Yatim. At initial stages Dr Iqbal was a nationalist by ideas and his poetry contained verses like Tarana-i-Hind. His poetry was a critique of the existing societal conditions. Being educated from Europe, he knew all weak aspects of the Western culture. He criticized capitalism, materialism and lack of spiritualism. IQBAL- Focus on the conditions of the Indian Muslims Islam can salvage the Muslims Islam has always saved Muslim Islam is a living and dynamic ideology that can meet modern challenges Islam to help them to overcome their internal discord and enable them to meet external challenges With spiritualism based derived from Islam Ijtehad and Reinterpretation (READ: Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam) Address to the Muslim League Session, Allahabad, December 1930 I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, Balochistan amalgamated into a single state as a self government within the British empire or without. This is the final destiny of the Muslims of N.W. India. (Dr Iqbal’s verses may be quoted) web site may also be visited: http://brain.brain.net.pk/~wisetech/50/bio/quaid.htm http://brain.brain.net.pk/~wisetech/50/bio/iqbal.htm 4 Lecture 3 Pak301 The Aligarh Movement 1858-1902 The War of Independence 1857 ended in a disaster for the Muslims. The British believed that the Muslims were responsible for the war of 1857 and therefore, they were subjected to ruthless punishment and merciless revenge. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their enemies because they had ousted them from power. With the war of 1857 this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Thus the Mughal rule came to an end and the subcontinent went directly under the British crown. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan made modern education the way to progress After the Muslim rule, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy restricted Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English as the only medium of instruction as well as the official language in 1835. A wrong attitude of everything modern and Western, and disinclination to make use of the opportunities opening under the new regime was created among the Muslims. This tendency, had it continued long, would have proved disastrous for the Muslim community. Such were the days of despair and despondency when Sir Syed appeared on the horizon of Muslim India to rescue them. Sir Syed had the conviction that regeneration of the Indian Muslims had not at all visualized that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e. an era of science and learning which was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for the regeneration of the Indian Muslims, which brought a complete orientation in their lives. He tried to transform Muslim minds from medieval outlook to a modern one. Hali and Shibli were also associated with the Aligarh Movement. Sir Syed’s first and foremost objective was to modernize the Muslims following the Western cultural values that could create friendly atmosphere for the two communities. He motivated his community to learn the Western philosophy and English literature to get along with the ruling people. Therefore, in order to fulfill this desire he started the Aligarh movement. He had two immediate objectives in view: 1) To remove the state of tension between the Muslims and the British government, and 2) To induce them to get jobs and other facilities under the new government. 5 To him, this was the only way for the Muslims to prosper. The ideals of Sir Syed may be summed up as following: 1. To create an atmosphere of mutual understanding between the British government and the Muslims 2. To motivate the Muslims to learn Western education 3. To persuade Muslims to abstain from agitational politics Fortunately, Syed Ahmad Khan was able to attract a number of sincere friends who shared his views and helped him. Among them were well-known figures like Nawab Mohsin ul Mulk, Nawab Viqar ul Mulk, Hali, Shibli, Nazir Ahmad, Chiragh Ali, Mohammad Hayat, and Zakaullah. All these personalities advocated the cause set by Sir Syed Ahmad Khan. Some English professors like Bech, Morison, Raleigh and Arnold also contributed greatly in building up the Aligarh college into a first rate institution. Syed Ahmad launched his educational movement by setting up Gulshan School at Muradabad – 1859; Victoria School at Gazipur in 1863; Scientific Society for the translation of English works in the native language, Urdu, at Aligarh in 1864; Aligarh Institute Gazette imparting information on history – ancient and modern, science of agriculture, natural sciences, physical sciences and Advanced Mathematics in 1866; Committee Striving for the Educational Progress of Muslims – 1870; Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental School (MAO) at Aligarh in 1875 at the pattern of English public schools and later raised to the level of college in 1877 and university in 1920; Mohammedan Educational Conference (1886), which met every year to take stock of the educational problems of the Muslims and to persuade them to get modern education and abstain from politics; it later became a political mouthpiece of the Indian Muslims and the forerunner of the All India Muslim league. Besides his prominent role in the educational uplift of the Muslims, Syed Ahmad Khan’s writings played important role in popularizing the ideals for which the Aligarh stood. His Risala Asbab-i-Baghawat-i-Hind in 1858; and other writings as Loyal Mohammedans of India; Tabyin-ul-Kalam and Khutbat-i-Ahmadiya rooted out the misunderstandings about Islamic teachings and helped create a cordial relation between the British Government and the Indian Muslims and also helped to remove the misunderstanding about Islam and Christianity. 6 It was this platform from where Syed Ahmad Khan strongly forbade the Muslims to join the Hindu dominated political party, the Indian National Congress. He regretted the Urdu-Hindi ontroversy initiated by Hindus and predicted that both the nations could no longer live together. He stood for reserved seats for Muslims and also promoted the idea that Hindus and Muslims are two distinct nations, which led to the Two Nation theory. Publications of the Aligarh c Movement Syed Ahmad Khan’s Aligarh Movement played a significant role to bring about an intellectual revolution among the Indian Muslims. Thus Aligarh Movement succeeded in achieving its major objectives and boosted up the depressed Muslim community to the real status of nation. 7 Lecture 4 Pak301 Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and His Contributions The great emancipator of the Indian Muslims Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was born at Delhi in 1817. This is the period when the great Mughal Empire was close to a complete collapse. Sir Syed’s family had already joined the East India Company and his maternal grandfather served in Iran and Burma under the British government. Sir Syed got interest in English from his maternal family. SM Ikram writes, “For this insight into the affairs of the state and first contacts with Western learning and civilization he was indebted to his maternal grandfather…” (S. M. Ikram, Modern Muslim India, p.18). Sir Syed was very healthy by birth and his grandfather remarked: “A Jat has been born in our family.” (Ibid., p. 19) The death of Sir Syed forced him to join the British as head clerk in 1839. The death of his brother made him serious and energetic to face the neuroses of life courageously. Another event that changed him entirely was the War of Independence in 1857. In 1841, he passed examination and became sub-judge. At the eve of the War of Independence he was performing the duties as sub-judge in Bijnore. He established educational institutions and after coming at Aligarh he rejuvenated his aspirations to work for the depressed Muslims of the Subcontinent. He devoted his entire life for this purpose to bring the Muslims close to the British. He died on March 27, 1898 and was buried in Aligarh. His Services He took responsibility of the Indian Muslims when they had been thrown in backwardness, depression and humiliation. The British held them criminal of the War while the Hindus had won the British being anti-Muslim force. In such environment, Sir Syed guided his community to rejoin the life. To Dr Qalb-i-Abid, “Sir Syed Ahmad Khan was among a very few leaders produced by Muslim India, who like Mohammad Ali Jinnah made a tremendous contribution in guiding the destinies of the Indian Muslims.” (Dr Q. Abid, Muslim Struggle for Independence, p. 11.) Sir Syed and Politics In the political arena, Sir Syed carved numerous successes; he eradicated misunderstandings between the Muslims and the British infused due to the past particular incidents. Awakening among the Muslims about the political ups and downs and co-existence in the presence of other nations in India was another contribution of Sir Syed. He motivated the Muslims to absorb the modern education of the West because this was the very motive of the Western expansion in the world. He visualized the bright future of the Muslims if they engaged themselves in the Western learning. Sir Syed won the British confidence and cordial relationship by saving their lives during the War of Independence. He utilized this relationship for the betterment of the Muslims. It was a subtle situation because the government had put the War crimes on the Muslim shoulders and assaulted their every aspect of life: “These events were a trauma for the Muslims; …the methods used by them shocked the civilised world. The detestation of Delhi as a centre of Muslim culture was horrendous; Bahadur Shah Zafar…was exiled to Rangoon; Lt. Hodson shot three Mughal princes and later 24 princes were tried and executed; a vast ocean of blood there was; Some Muslims were shot dead and their dead bodies were thrown into the river Jamna…” (Ibid., p. 14). All Muslims were ousted from land, property and employments that made them third class citizens of India. This created revengeful sentiments among the Muslims who detested British, their culture and civilization. Sir Syed was of the view that British were a civilised, educated, wise and disciplined nation and occupied India with the new war strategy and munitions that could not be matched by the locals and particularly by the Muslims. Therefore at the juncture the Muslims should mould themselves according to the pace of time to avoid more disaster. Sir Syed published Loyal Mohammedans of India and Risala Asbab-i-Baghawat-i-Hind that helped both the nations to redress their grievances. In 1885 the Indian National Congress was founded but Sir Syed warned the Muslims from the sinister aspirations of the Hindus. Another factor was that he intended the Muslims to abstain from the politics that could result in friction with the ruling nation. 8 Urdu-Hindi Controversy Urdu grew as common language of all the Indians regardless of origin or religion but in 1867 the Benarsi Hindus started campaign to replace Urdu by Hindi. To gain the objectives, they declared numerous organisations, which discouraged Sir Syed who said to Shakespeare that since now both the nations could not live together. Later the followers of Sir Syed tried their level best to save Urdu language. Mohsin ul Mulk was the outstanding person who organized the Muslims in defence of Urdu. Muslims-as a Nation Sir Syed used the word ‘nation’ for the Muslims. Some writers criticize that he declared Hindus and Muslims one nation. But as a matter of fact, he advocated the Hindu-Muslim unity that meant ‘the working relationship’ between the two nations as once he said: “Hindus and Muslims should try to be of one mind in matters which affected their progress.” He favoured separate electorate for the Muslims in 1883 saying that the majority would override the interests of the minority. (P. Hardy, pp. 136-37) United Indian Patriotic Association In 1888, he set up the Patriotic Association to meet the propaganda of the Congress. Muslims and Hindus joined the Association. It advocated the Muslims’ emotions. Muhammadan Defense Association In December 1893, Sir Syed founded the Association. Its main purpose was to protect the political, religious and social rights of the Muslims. Sir Syed was great because he contributed greatly to the Muslim struggle for identity. Otto von Bismarck served the German nation with the help of all government sources but Sir Syed did the same without all this. To Khalid Bin Sayeed, “Many tributes have been paid to Sir Sayyid, particularly by modern educated Muslims for being daring enough to put forward such views in an age which was by no means liberal or tolerant.” (Dr Khalid Bin Sayeed, Pakistan, the Formative Phase, p. 17). 9 Lecture 5 Pak301 MAJOR POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1857-1918 The year 1857 brought decline to the Muslim rule in India. Muslims and Hindus participated in the War of Independence but the British held only Muslims responsible for the rebellion. The Muslims were persecuted ruthlessly and left at the mercy of time. The post war era was disastrous for the Muslims but some personalities emerged on the national scene and played excellent role to guide their people in this critical situation. The Central Mohammedan Association of Justice Amir Ali Syed and the Aligarh movement are very prominent in this regard. Their efforts for revival of the self-identity and political positioning in the Indian society enabled them to face any challenge in the future. Some important issues have already been discussed in the previous lectures. So a brief reference to events in historical context may be given: • Decline after the 1857 Uprising • Sir Syed and his colleagues’ efforts for revival • Removal of misunderstanding between the Muslims and the British • Educational movement or acquisition of modern knowledge and English • Hindi-Urdu Controversy was the issue that unearthed the hatred and enmity of Hindu community towards the Muslims. • Formation of the Congress was a method to incorporate the Muslims in Hinduism. It popularized the agitational politics that Muslims could not afford because they were still recovering the past gaps. • Hindu Revivalist movements mostly targeted the Muslims that accelerated the pace of widening the gulf between the two nations. Events Since the Beginning of 20TH Century 1. Partition of Bengal, 1905 2. Simla Deputation, 1906 3. Formation of the Muslim League, 1906 4. Changes in the Goals of the Muslim League, 1913 5. Lucknow Pact, 1916 1: Pratition of Bengal: 1905 United Bengal’s area covered 189,000 sq. miles with 80 million populations. Dr Abdul Hameed writes in his book, Muslim Separatism in India, that the partition was imperative even if Curzon had not initiated it. A Lt. Governor had problems in looking after the eastern areas. Mainly Muslim suffered because of the rotten administration by the British. Before 1905, many proposals of partition of Bengal had been under consideration but Lord Curzon decided to practicalise this administrative scheme. East Bengal became incidentally a Muslim majority province having 13000000 out of 31000000. West Bengal was a Hindu majority province. Muslims were very happy on the partition as this had enabled them to promote their life conditions. It was rightly an opportunity for compensation. The Muslim community supported it strongly but Hindus retaliated furiously saying it the division of motherland. The Congress joined the anti-partition movement. They started widespread agitation, violence and boycott of foreign goods. The main reason of Hindu protest was that they had loosened grip over the eastern parts. Annulment of the Partition on 12 December 1911 The British government revoked the partition to avoid trouble on the visit of King George V. The Muslims were disappointed by the government response to the violent strategy of protests adopted by the Hindus. 10 2: The Simla Deputation 1906 In fact Simla Deputation was in line with a kind of thinking that was developing amongst the Muslims during that time i.e. they had certain interests and they must stand up to protect their rights and unless they do that that objective would not be achieved. The Simla Deputation of 1906 was the first systematic attempt on the part of the Muslims to present their demands, to the British government and to seek their acceptance. The Simla deputation comprised 35 Muslims from all over India. It was a galaxy of Muslims leaders from all the provinces, from one end of India to the other and it had Muslims of all background. Therefore, when in 1906, this deputation called on the Viceroy, it was the most representative Muslim delegation. This delegation was led by Sir Agha Khan and Nawab Mohsin ul Malik served as a secretary and this delegation met the Viceroy in Simla that was why it was called as Simla Deputation. The memorandum which they presented was a kind of demands which were the uppermost in the minds of the Muslims at that time. The delegation emphasized that the Muslims should not be viewed simply in numerical terms but they should take into account their historical importance and the kind of contribution the Muslims had made to British India and keeping in view that importance they should work towards accommodating their demands. The delegation emphasized that democratic principle should be introduced keeping in view the peculiar conditions and circumstances of India. The diversity, the fact that there different kinds of people living in India and the fact that the Muslims consider themselves to be a separate entity, all these things had to be taken into account because the India was not a homogenous amalgamated or monolithic political identity. It was a political identity comprising diversity, divergence in view, divergence in outlook and when you introduce some kind of system then these realities had to be accommodated. In view of this submission they presented some demands: Representation more than their population because of their importance. Separate electorate Reservations of Muslims seats in government jobs. Special share in Municipal or district boards University senates and syndicates Muslim representation in Viceroy Executive Council. Muslim University at Aligarh. The Viceroy was sympathetic towards the demands. It encouraged the Muslims to launch struggle for their rights parallel to the Indian National Congress but it required an organized platform. 3: Formation of the Muslim League in Dhaka: December 30, 1906 Time had come to formally organize the Muslims after the success of the Simla Deputation. The Muslim leaders desired to create a permanent political forum. After the meeting of the Mohammedan Educational Conference, the Muslim leaders met to set up the All India Muslim League. Wiqar-ul-Mulk chaired the meeting. Nawab Salimullah proposed Muslim League and Hakim Ajmal Khan and Maulana Zafar Ali Khan seconded. In the Karachi session Dec. 1907 its constitution was approved and in March 1908 at Aligarh, Agha Khan was formally elected its president. London Branch: May 1908 Justice Amir Ali Syed organised a branch of Muslim League at London and responded effectively to the misunderstandings and conspiracies of the Hindus against the Muslims. GOALS: 1. Protection and promotion of political rights and interests of the Muslims. 2. Cooperation with other communities without prejudice to the above goal. 3. Fostering sense of loyalty, among the Muslims, towards the government. 11 4: Change in the Goals of the Muslim League 1913 Important developments occurred during the first decade of the 20th century like annulment of the Partition of Bengal and Western aggression towards Muslim countries, Balkan wars, Libya-Italy war, Demolition of the mosque in Kawnpur (1913), etc. weakened Muslim faith in the British. This led to a major drift in the Muslim League’s policy. In 1913, the League changed its goals: • Self government under the British Crown keeping in view the peculiar conditions in India. • Good relations with other communities’ cooperation with any party working for similar goals. This change brought the ML and Congress closer. In this way the era of cooperation between Hindus and Muslims set in. The role of the Quaid-i-Azam is highly noteworthy to bring the Congress and the Muslim League to the table. He joined the Muslim League in 1913. 5: Lucknow Pact, 1916 The Lucknow pact was the product of Hindu-Muslim unity envisaged by M. A. Jinnah. In December 1915, the ML and Congress met separately in Bombay. Both the parties set up committees for making a scheme for constitutional changes in consultation with other political parties. Role of the Quaid-i-Azam Jinnah did a lot to unite the two nations along with the recognition of the rights of Muslims. Meeting of both parties held at Lucknow in 1916. The constitutional proposals were approved: 1. One Third seats for Muslims in the Imperial Legislative Council. 2. Separate Electorate 3. Half members of the Executive Council to be elected by the Imperial Legislative Council. 4. Commissioned ranks of the army for Indians. 5. Expansion of Provincial Legislative Councils. 6. Half members of the Governor’s Executive Council be elected by Provincial Legislative Council 7. Weightage to minorities in provinces. Gains from Muslim Point-of-view 1. Separate Electorate 2. One Third Muslim seats in Central Legislature. 3. Unofficial bill, if opposed by three-fourth members of a community, it will not be passed. August 20, 1917 Announcement by British Government Secretary of State Montagu promised for: 1. Greater association of Indian in all branches of government. 2. Responsible government 3. Induction of Indians in the commissioned ranks. Conclusion: The historical struggle of the Muslims confirmed their identity. They organized their political party to address the demands. They also got recognition by the Hindus as a separate nation. The British accepted their role in the political domain. 12 Lecture 6 Pak301 The Khilafat Movement The Khilafat movement was a religio-political movement launched by the Muslims of British India for the retention of the Ottoman Caliphate and for not handing over the control of Muslim holy places to non-Muslims. Turkey sided with Germany in World War 1. As it began to lose the war, concerns were expressed in India about the future of Turkey. It was a peak period from 1919 to 1922 casting demonstrations, boycott, and other pressure by the two major communities, the Hindus and the Muslims. Being brothers, the Indian Muslims realized their religious duty to help the Muslim country. It was the extra territorial attachments based on Islam. Another factor same to the first was that the Indian Muslims considered Ottoman Caliphate a symbol of unity of the Muslim world as Ummah. Goals: 1. Ottoman Khilafat should be kept intact. 2. Territorial solidarity of Turkey be preserved. 3. Control of holy the places should not be given to non-Muslims. Dimensions: The writings of the Muslim intellectuals provoked the sentiments for the preservation of Khilafat and retention of the Muslims control of the holy places. The Muslims journalism played a vital role to steer the direction of the struggle. Zamindar of Zafar Ali Khan, Comrade and Hamdard of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar, and Al-Hilal of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad etc. were the prominent newspapers and magazines which performed their duties to express their resentment. The Allies imposed humiliating terms on vanquished Turkey. Protests in India: All India Khilafat Committee was formed at Bombay in July 1919. The first Khilafat Conference at Delhi in November 1919 was arranged in which the Congress leaders like Gandhi and Nehru participated. In this way, the major political parties joined hands to assault the injustice with the Muslim community. These steps were announced: == No participation in victory celebrations. == Boycott of British goods == Non Cooperation with the Government The second Khilafat Conference (Amritsar) was held in Dec. 1919. Maulana Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali joined the session after being released from prison. In Jan. 1920, M. A. Ansari led a delegation to Viceroy while Maulana M. A. Jauhar to Europe. The Khilafat Committee decided to start non-cooperation in collaboration with the Congress in May 1920. Rowlett Act, 1919 Rowlett Act was a black law introduced in India. To the law, the government got authority to persecute any Indian and the arrested had no facility of legal assistance and right to appeal just as the ‘Lettres de Cachet’ in France before the French Revolution. Jinnah resigned from the central legislature as a protest. Jallianwala Bagh Incident, April 1919 The people gathered in Jallianwala Bagh at Amritsar but General Dyer opened fire to disperse the throng that cast a huge human casualties (379). It is considered one of the great tragedies in India. In 1940, by killing Governor Punjab, Sir Michaal O’ Dayer, ‘Ram Muhammad Singh Azad’ got revenge of the Indian massacre. The Nagpur Session of the Congress (Dec. 1920) approved non-cooperation with Government but Jinnah opposed and left the Congress because he was against the use of extraconstitutional means of protests. 13 Non-Cooperation: == Return Titles == Boycott of courts and educational institutions == Resign from jobs == Later resign from police and military jobs == Refusal to pay taxes Khilafat Conference, Karachi, July 1921 In the session the participants expressed their loyalty to Turkish Sultan. They decided to continue the agitation and supported Attaturk to expel foreign forces from Turkey. Hijrat Movement 1920-21 The Indian ulama (religious leaders) declared India ‘Darul Harab.’ Darul Harab means the place (country) where Muslims are not allowed to perform their religious practices. In the said situation, the Muslims should migrate to the nearest safe place. The ulama issued verdicts to go to Darul Islam, Afghanistan. There was an impression that King of Afghanistan would welcome them. So the migration took place at large scale. Initially Afghans welcomed them. Later, they closed the border and pushed the migrants back to the Indian territories. It resulted in loss of lives and money. Many died during this mission. Some went to Soviet Union from Afghanistan because they had nothing in India now. End of the Movement Moplah Revolt Malabar Coast, near Kalicut Moplahs were the descendents of the Arab Muslims settled in the Sub-Continent even before the arrival of Muhammad Bin Qasim. In August 1921, they revolted against Hindu landlords whose treatment was very brutal with them. Later this clash changed as Moplahs versus the Police and Hindu. This embittered the Hindu-Muslim relations. There was an increase in violence day by day and the Chorachori Incident (UP) in February 1922 worsened the situation. The Congress volunteers set a police station on fire and 21 policemen were killed. Gandhi suddenly called off the movement. Developments in Turkey In 1922 Attaturk emerged as a national leader and restricted powers of Sultan. Next he was appointed Chief of the state by Grand National Assembly. In March 1924, Khilafat was abolished. This caused a widespread resentment among the Indian Muslims. They sent delegations to Turkey but failed to achieve their objectives. Conclusions: 1. It was re-affirmation of the reality that religion is a mobilizing force and especially Islam has mobilization capacity to organize masses. 2. It was the movement launched on the basis of extra-territorialism. Later, no such movement but Pan-Islamic sentiments continued. 3. It resulted in the sufferings of the Muslims 4. Hindu-Muslim unity proved short-lived. 5. Reactivation of the Muslim League and other Muslims organizations to restart their activities as a separate nation. 14 Lecture 7 Pak301 Muslim Politics in British India: 1924-1935 1. Delhi Muslim Proposals 2. Nehru Report 3. Quaid-i-Azam’s Fourteen Points 4. Simon Commission 5. Round Table Conferences 6. Constitutional Proposals Backdrop: The Khilafat movement brought Hindu-Muslim communities to cooperation. The leaders made the efforts to revive harmony for preparing constitutional proposals. 1: Delhi Muslim Proposals: March 1927 Important Muslim leaders on the initiative of the Quaid met in Delhi to discuss constitutional and political issues. The major demands were: Punjab and Bengal: statuary Muslim majorities No Weightage in provinces Sind to be separated from Bombay Constitutional Reforms in NWFP One-third seats for Muslims in Central Legislature On communal issues, no law will be passed if three-fourth members of the concerned community oppose it. If these demands are accepted, they will give up ‘separate electorate.’ Subsequently, the Muslim League was divided in the Punjab, Shafi League and Jinnah League. Sir Muhammad Shafi opposed Jinnah on the issues: == Separate electorate == Attitude towards the Simon Commission. Jinnah continued his unremitting efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity. 2: The Nehru Report: 1928 The main objective was to constitute proposals for the Indian Constitution. The Congress called All Parties Conference that appointed a 10-member committee in May 1928 under the Chairmanship of Motilal Nehru and Secretary ship of Jawaharlal Nehru. Recommendations that threatened Muslim interests are: == No Separate electorate == No One-third seats for Muslims in Central Assembly == No reservation of seats for Muslims in Punjab and Bengal. In Hindu- majority provinces, the Muslims may be given seats according to population == Sind to be made a province if it can bear its expenses. Balochistan, NWFP were accepted to be given constitutional status on certain conditions. Quaid-i-Azam tried to get amendments in the Report in the All Parties Conference in Calcutta but did not succeed. This is the very moment when Jinnah remarked, “it is parting of the ways.” He presented the 14 points as a Muslim leader. 3: Jinnah’s Fourteen Points: 1929 1. Federal system with residuary powers with the provinces 15 2. Provincial autonomy. 3. Separate electorate for Muslims. 4. Effective representation to minorities in the provinces but the majority should not be reduced to minority 5. One-third representation of Muslims in Central Legislature. 6. One third Muslim representation in cabinets. 7. No changes in the boundaries of the Punjab and Bengal that would adversely affect Muslim majority. 8. Religious freedom to all. 9. No law will be passed if three-fourth elected members of a community declare that it is against their interests. 10. Sind to be made a separate province. 11. Constitutional Reforms in NWFP and Balochistan. 12. Muslim representation in govt. jobs. 13. Constitutional safeguards for Islamic culture and civilization, education, language, personal laws and Muslim institutions. Government should provide financial assistance. 14. No constitutional amendment unless all constituent units of the federation agree to it. These points reflected the aspirations of every Muslim living in India. 4: The Simon Commission: The British government sent a commission to seek the opinion of Indians on the future shape of constitutional arrangements. It arrived in India in 1927 and it published the report in 1930. Most political parties boycotted it. It presented its report containing several constitutional proposals: =Federal system of government with strong centre =Two Houses. =Abolition of Dyarchy system in provinces =More powers to provincial governments. =Governor not to interfere in day to day affairs. =Constitutional changes in NWFP 5: Roundtable Conferences: 1930, 1931, and 1932 First Session of the Conference In the first session, a number of prominent Muslims like M. A. Jinnah, Sir Shafi, Maulana M. A. Jauhar, Zafarullah Khan participated. They emphasized federalism, selfgovernment, safeguards for minorities, separate electorate, preferential representation in central legislature, secure majorities in Punjab and Bengal. Second Conference Maulana M. A. Jauhar had died after the first conference. Iqbal, Jinnah and others participated in the second conference. Gandhi represented the Congress. The key issues of the session were ‘Federation’ and ‘Minorities.’ The Communal Award, August 1932 Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald announced the Communal Award: 16 1. Separate electorate for all minorities of India. 2. Weightage to minorities 3. No Muslim majorities in Punjab and Bengal as was followed in Lucknow Pact 4. One third representation for Muslims in Central legislature 5. One fourth representation for Muslims in services 6. Sind to be made a province Poona Pact, September 1932 The Congress expressed strong reaction against the right of separate electorate to the Indian minorities, especially to low caste Hindus whom Gandhi named Harijan (sons of God). Dissonance in Gandhi is conspicuous that he observed fast unto death on the right to the ‘sons of God.’ An agreement with low caste to surrender the separate electorate right was concluded to save Gandhi’s life. 3rd Roundtable Conference: Nov. 17-Dec. 24 1932 The main issues had been discussed in the first two conferences and now the rest of them were to be discussed. It was poorly attended conference. Quaid did not participate despite living in London. Gandhi did not attend as he had been detained. The conference brought no change in party positions and widened Hindu-Muslim gulf. White Paper on Constitutional Proposals: March 1933 The British government issued a small document in the form the White Paper. It included detail of working basis of the Indian constitution with Dyarchy in the centre and full responsible governments in the provinces. Government of India Act, 1935 Approved by the King: August 1935 Despite these efforts the communal problems could not be settled as satisfactory to the nations living in India particularly the Muslim. Therefore the key issues remained unchanged: == Hindu Muslim Relations == Failure to arrive at settlement == Muslim demands transmuted from safeguarding rights to complete independence—Pakistan. ************************************************************ 17 Lecture 8 Pak301 ALLAMA IQBAL’s Presidential Address December 1930 Dr Allama Muhammad Iqbal ranks amongst the Muslim intellectuals who left a deep impact on history. He inspired Muslims of the Sub-Continent and beyond. He infused a moving spirit and identity in the Indian Muslims. He presented a framework of their political future and talked how that would help to achieve the goal of Ummah. He presented a vision and dream in his Allahabad Address. 1: Background The Hindu-Muslim question had great importance and stood crucial to British Indian history after 1857, especially in the 20th century. To Muslims, the key issue remained ‘separate identity.’ They tried their level best to make the rival nations understand that the Muslims are a separate nation having different culture and civilization, interests and rights. The Two Nations theory could not fascinate the Hindus and the British peoples because they believed in ‘territorial nationalism.’ The Hindus desired to absorb them in their majority but they could not face the arguments of the Muslim intellectuals. By 1930, Muslims had developed a sense of identity and political demands. Iqbal delivered his Presidential address in this background. Iqbal’s stay in Europe, 1905-08, helped to crystallize his thoughts. He returned to India in 1908 and started work on the roots of Muslim decline and the mechanism to uplift the Muslims. He reminded them to follow the teachings of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) practically as the ideal leader. He emphasized on the ideals, teachings and principles of Islam. He sought salvation through Islam. He was awarded with many prominent social positions: • Title of Sir was conferred in 1922 • Member Punjab Legislative Council (1927-1930) He delivered lectures on Islam in Aligarh, Hyderabad and Madras (1928-29). At Allahabad, he presided over the meeting and delivered his famous address. The Address, December 1930 Iqbal presented a review of the political and social situation of India and solution of the ills befalling India. He evaluated the importance of role of Islam in the lives of Muslims of British India. He said that the European view of duality of religion and state does not apply here in the Indian society. Rejecting the secularism he said, religion is not a totally personal affair. He explained that Islam offers an ethical order, socio-political structure, legal framework, code of life, culture and civilization. It is a living, dynamic force that has a profound impact on the lives of Indian Muslims. With the force of Islam the scattered and disoriented people have been turned into an organized force. The Muslims are not willing to submerge their religious individuality. They have lack of trust, fear of domination from Hindus. If the British want any sort of internal harmony it would be impossible unless the communal question is settled. It’s historical reality that India is a continent inhabited by diverse people. No political arrangement may be acceptable without recognizing this reality. • If the Muslims have an opportunity to develop in accordance with their Islamic civilization and tradition, they would be willing to sacrifice their lives for India. • Federalism cannot succeed without recognizing the national identity of the Muslims. 18 • Territorial redistribution of British India on the basis of religion has become a need of time. • Punjab, NWFP, Sind and Balochistan be amalgamated into a state, self government within the British empire or without it. The formation of such a consolidated North Western Muslim state appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of North West India. To India, it will offer peace and security due to internal balance of power. • Islam is a people building force in India that has given moral consciousness and political identity to the people. Importance Iqbal’s address is a forceful and logical presentation of the Muslim case in India. Why should they be treated as a political entity rather than a minority? • Territorial adjustments will enable the Muslims to develop themselves in accordance with their ideals and serve the cause of Ummah. • Redistribution of territory developed later on concept of Muslim homeland. • He further expressed these ideas in LETTERS TO JINNAH from May 1936 to November 1937. He talked of a separate federation of Muslim provinces. The North Western India and Bengal can be considered as entitled to self-determination like other nations in India and outside. Shariah’s development is impossible without a free Muslim state or states. He advised the Muslims to be above self-interest and devote themselves to Islam. • In difficult times, Islam has saved the Muslims. • Faith, culture and historical traditions are more important than patriotism. 19 Lecture 9 Pak301 Muslim Politics and Chaudhry Rahmat Ali Intellectuals give lines of movement, leaders act upon and the masses prove good soldiers and this way nations accomplish their achievements. Rahmat Ali was one of the eminent scholars who made a significant contribution to the movement for the establishment of Pakistan. He was conscious of Muslim identity and outlined proposals for the partition of India for the sake of Muslims. He was the man who coined the name, PAKISTAN, for the Muslim state. When he first presented his proposal for a Muslim state, nobody took it seriously. The Muslim intellectuals and leaders were concerned about the future of the Muslims in India. They ensured a secure future for Muslims. For this purpose they worked out various proposals for securing a homeland. Rahmat Ali becomes relevant here. Biographical Sketch Ch. Rahmat Ali was born in Hoshiarpur district in 1893. Traditionally he did his B.A. from Islamia College, Lahore. He did the private and government jobs for some time and then left for Cambridge University for higher education. He was involved actively in the activities for the protection of rights of the Indian Muslims along with some other students at Cambridge University. His activism goes back to his student days in Lahore when he talked of separate state for Muslims of India. Rahmat Ali’s Views He said that North Western areas are Muslim majority ares. We will not only keep these majorities but will turn them into a Muslim state. Muslims should get rid of Indianism, it is better for Muslims and Islam. In his writing, NOW OR NEVER (January 1933), he proposed the name of Muslim state, PAKISTAN. P Punjab A Afghania NWFP K Kashmir S Sind TAN Balochistan INDIA cannot be described as a state/country or home of single nation. This state did not exist as one political entity before the advent of the British. The Muslims are a distinct nation who has maintained its identity throughout. They are a separate nation. They have as much right to live as the Hindus. Pakistan should be separated from the rest of India. He further said that the conflict between Muslims and Hindus is not religious, sectarian or economic but an international. The Muslims are striving for survival; Hindus are trying for domination over the other nations living in the Sub-Continent particularly the Muslims. He established the Pakistan National Movement in 1940. He began to talk about Bengal and Hyderabad as Muslim areas and separate states. Bang-i-Islam would comprise of Bengal and Assam and Osmanistan of Hyderabad Deccan. He visited Pakistan in 1948 but the atmosphere of the motherland did not suit him and so he returned to Cambridge. He died there on 11 February 1951. His Contribution It is the ever-shining contribution of Rahmat Ali that he coined the name of the Muslim state. He said that being nation, the Indian Muslims deserved a separate homeland. He gave the future lines to the Muslims considering Islamic thoughts universal and true in comparison with the contemporary isms. When the Lahore Resolution was passed, it was instantly described as Pakistan Resolution. It, the division of India, was the solution of Hindu-Muslim question but Rahmat Ali proposed this long before the Lahore Resolution. 20 Lecture 10 PAK301 The Congress Ministries– Policies towards Muslims Topics: 1. Elections 2. Provincial Governments 3. Their Policies 4. Muslim Response Government of India Act, 1935: The Government of India Act, 1935 was not fully promulgated but the only provincial part was introduced in the country. Muslim League and the Congress criticized it but agreed to contest provincial elections. The 1937 Elections: The elections of 1937 were held with the restricted franchise and separate electorate. The Congress projected itself as an all-India force representing all religions and factions of the society. The Muslim League contested for the Muslim seats. There was a tough competition from the other Muslim organizations. The elections were completed in February 1937. The Congress got majorities in five provinces, Madras, U.P., C.P., Bihar, and Orissa. It emerged as the largest party in Bombay and won 704 out of 1585 general seats. The Muslim League performed poorly in the elections and got only about 21 percent of Muslim seats without winning majority anywhere, Bengal, Punjab, NWFP, and Sind. It was mostly due to the organizational problems and opposition by local Muslim groups. Formation of Provincial Governments: In July 1937, Congress formed governments in 6 provinces. In NWFP, Khudai Khidmatgar and Congress formed a coalition government. In the Muslim majority provinces, the Muslim League could not form the governments. The Muslim League desired to be in government in the U.P. but the Congress consented to a conditional support: 1. Dissolve AIML Parliamentary Board 2. AIML members not to function as a separate group 3. AIML members to express allegiance to the Congress Definitely the above-mentioned terms were a device to subvert the existence of the Muslim League. Therefore, no agreement was possible on this issue. Policies of the Congress Governments: (July 1937-Nov. 1939) First all Congress governments in the provinces launched anti-Muslim drive basically to exclude the ML and other Muslim organizations from the government making process. The Congress leaders had come to know that the ML had got roots in the masses. They started ‘Muslim Mass Contact’ movement to defame the ML in their favour. They were making cultural and educational policies that promoted the Hindu culture and symbols in the name of Indian culture. They introduced Banda-Mataram anthem from Annandmath in the institutions and offices etc. The Hindi language was given top most importance in their policies. Wardha Educational Scheme was to convert Muslims into Hindus through primary educational literature. Projection of Hindu heroes like Gandhi and distortion of Muslim history became their moral creed. They followed the policy of discrimination in services or new recruitment for jobs. The Congress ministries adopted overall negative and cruel attitude, especially towards the Muslim activists. This unjust treatment compelled the Muslims to be disciplined in every sphere of life. 21 Muslim Response: The Muslims were well aware of the theocratic inclination of the Hindu people. They arranged a close monitoring of the government. They publicized their policies and raised the issues. The mobilization of Muslims on these matters required keen probe to collect the original facts of the Hindu atrocities. The Pirpur Report: On March 28, 1938, the Council of ML appointed an eight-member committee under the presidentship of Raja Syed Muhammad Mehdi of Pirpur that presented its report on, November 15, 1938. It tried to dig out the cruelties of the Congress ministries in seven provinces. The report took up the Congress support to the rival Muslim organizations, intimidation and threats to the pro-Muslim League people. The Sharif Report, March 1939 The ML deputed Mr. Shareef with members to investigate the injustices under the dictatorial rule of the Hindus. This report mainly collected the facts, concentrating on ill treatment of the government with the Muslims in Bihar. The Fazl-ul- Haq Report: (December 1939) A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq published a pamphlet entitled Muslim Sufferings Under the Rule of Congress and made many alarming revelations e.g. forbidding of Azan, attacks in mosques, noisy processions of the Hindu scoundrels, forbidding of the cow-slaughter etc. This pamphlet responded the indictments by the Congress on the Muslims. All the reports described the Congress government as an attempt to create ‘Hindu Raj’ that wanted to overwhelm the Muslim culture and their identity. It was a rigorous threat to the Muslims’ interests. Muslim League Activism: The Muslim League highlighted the issues and mobilized the Muslims to counter them adequately. It reorganized the Muslim community to cope with the situation. The ML arranged its session at Lucknow in October 1937. Many prominent leaders like Fazlul Haq participated in the session while Sikander Hayat and Saadullah announced their support to the ML. The Muslim leaders shed a sharp criticism on the Congress policies. They protested against the reduction of status of Urdu and other Muslim related issues. They created realization, amongst the Muslims, of what can happen under the Congress rule and urged for serious thinking about the future political and constitutional arrangements. They unearthed the real objectives of the Congress and urged the need of unity among the Muslims under the banner of Muslim League. The Second World War (September 1939) proved blessing for the Muslims in a sense that the Congress Ministries resigned in November 1939. The Muslims observed Day of Deliverance on December 22, 1939. The ML redefined its position during the World War II. They expressed their enthusiasm that no constitution to be enforced without the consent of the Muslims. They eradicated their organizational weaknesses and refined their objectives keeping the experiences of the Congress ministries. 22 Lecture 11 Pak301 The Lahore Resolution, 1940 The experience of Congress Rule compelled the Muslims to launch the movement for separate homeland. The Hindus made them realize that Hindu government would mean an antiMuslim rule in India. The Muslims’ disappointment from the Congress leadership decided to open a new phase of history. Quaid-i-Azam’s article in Time and Tide concluded that Muslims are a nation. No Constitution can be enforced by ignoring Muslims. His comments on March 13, 1940 are remarkable: “If some satisfactory settlement cannot be found for Muslims in united India, the Muslim will have to demand for division of the country.” The Lahore Resolution: The Muslim League held its annual session at Lahore on 22-24 March 1940. The Lahore Resolution was moved by Maulvi Fazlul Haq and seconded by Ch. Khaliquzzaman that finally approved on March 24, 1940. Jinnah rightly expressed his valuable remarks about the political circumstances of India and the Muslims stand. He said: “Indian problem is not communal but international. No Constitution can work without recognizing this reality. Muslims of India will not accept a constitution that establishes a government of the Hindu majority on them. If Hindus and Muslims are placed under one democratic system, this would mean Hindu Raj.” Text of the Resolution: • They decided that the Federal system under Government of India Act, 1935 was not acceptable for the Muslims. • No revised constitutional plan would be acceptable unless it was framed with their approval and consent. • Adjacent units where Muslims are in a majority, as in Northwest and East, should be constituted as Independent States where the constituent units will be autonomous and sovereign. • Protection of minorities would be given priority. Significance: This Resolution did not specify any demarcation of the territory but it defined the future plan of struggle for the establishment of the Muslims states (later the word ‘states’ was replaced by ‘state’ in 1946) in the Northwestern and Eastern areas where the Muslims were in overwhelming majority. It also intended to give importance to the autonomy of the states. There was no use of the word Pakistan but Pakistan was kernel of the Resolution. Later Developments: The World War II started in 1939 that required heavily men powered battlefield. The British who always believe in bargaining announced an offer in August 1940: 1. Expansion of the Viceroy’s Executive Coucil and the setting up of National Defence Council 2. Special importance to the views of minorities in the revision of the constitution. 23 3. Power could not be transferred under a system that will not be acceptable to large and powerful minorities in India. 4. Dominion Status: the ultimate goal 5. Cooperation of Indians for the war Congress rejected it and started Non-Cooperation movement 1940-41. Lahore Resolution remained the ultimate goal for the Muslim Leagues. The Cripps Mission, March 1942 The constitutional proposals for seeking Indian cooperation for war efforts: 1. Dominion status 2. Indian constitutional body to frame constitution 3. Princely states would be represented. The Cripps Mission negotiated with Indian leaders and issued the proposals. The Congress rejected the proposals and demanded that a responsible government would be set up immediately after the war. The defense affairs should be under the Indian control. The Muslim League also rejected the proposals and repeated its stand that the Muslims could not live in Indian Union. The Hindus started Quit India Movement in August 1942 seeing British in trouble. The Muslim League stayed aloof and responded by saying that divide and quit India. Gandhi-Jinnah Talks, September 1944 MK Gandhi did not accept the Hindus and Muslims as Two Nations and emphasized on the freedom of united India. Jinnah told him that the Muslims could never budge even a single inch from their ideological and constitutional demand. 24 Lecture 12 Pak301 Major Political Developments in 1945-46 Political Situation in 1945 During the World War ll, the British sought Indian military cooperation and offered political and constitutional changes after the war. They desired to expand the Viceroy’s Executive Council. Lord Wavell arranged Simla Conference during June-July 1945 in which all the political parties participated by sending their representatives. Jinnah and Abul Kalam Azad represented the Muslim League (ML) and the Congress respectively. Maulana Azad claimed Congress as sole representative party of all the peoples living in India. Jinnah considered the ML the only political party of the Indian Muslims and on this the ML had right to appoint Muslim members to the Council. This issue could not be dissolved and the differences between the ML and the Congress increased. The Elections, 1945-46 Lord Wavell announced elections in August 1945. He visited England and after consultations he presented new political steps: 1. Self government with the cooperation of Indian leaders. 2. New Elections in the winter. 3. Provincial governments in the provinces 4. Constitutional Assembly to be convened. The basis of constitution making was to be settled. 5. Executive Council to be set up. It will have representation of major parties. Elections: The ML’s stand was very clear i.e. the ML is a sole representative of Muslims and Pakistan is its ultimate goal. The ML launched the massive campaign for these destinations. The Islamic slogans became massively popular. In this way, the struggle for the establishment of Pakistan was motivated on the basis of Islam. The role of students was also prominent during the political drive. On the other hand, the Congress put the slogan of independence from British in the shape of undivided India before the Hindu nation. They proclaimed that their stand was for all the Indian communities. In December 1945 the elections of Central Legislature were held and the ML won all 30 Muslim seats. The Congress won 57 seats. Provincial Elections: February 1946 In the provincial elections, the ML won most of the Muslim seats: Punjab: 79 out of 86 Muslim seats Bengal 113 out of 119 Muslim seats Sindh 28 out of 35 Muslim seats NWFP 17 out of 38 Muslim seats 25 The ML also showed an impressive performance in the Muslim minority provinces. The ML formed its ministry in Sind, Khudai Khidmatgar (Dr. Khan) in NWFP, coalition government by ML in Bengal, and Unionist (20), Akalis and the Congress in Punjab (Khizr Hayat Tiwana). The Cabinet Mission: March 1946 The British Labour government sent a mission to formulate some acceptable constitutional settlement. Sir Pethick Lawrence, Stafford Cripps and A. V. Alexander deliberated with the governors, members of the Executive Council and then the Indian political leaders on different proposals. Maulana Azad as the president of the Congress stressed to establish federal government and Jinnah repeated the Two Nation Theory as a universal reality. On April 19, 1946, all the newly elected Muslim members pledged in the Delhi Convention to shatter the Hindu dream of united India. In the second Simla Conference (May 15, 1946) the ML wished two legislative assemblies while anti-ML political parties favoured strong centre. Recommendations of the Cabinet Mission: May 1946 1. Indian Union comprising British India and princely states. 2. Centre to deal with foreign affairs, defence, communication, taxation. 3. Rest of the subjects with provinces. 4. There will be a legislature and executive comprising representatives of provinces and states. 5. No legislation on communal affairs if the majority of the two communities are not present and voting in favour. 6. Provinces will be divided into three groups: A: Hindu majority provinces e.g. UP, CP, Madras, Bombay, Bihar, Orissa. B: Muslim majority provinces in NW e.g. Punjab, NWFP, Balochistan and Sindh. C: Bengal and Assam. Each group could decide what to be managed jointly and what should be managed by provinces themselves. They could decide if the group desired to frame constitution. 7. After ten years, a province by a vote of its legislature could ask for review of relationship with the Union. It implied that a group or province could quit the Indian Union. 8. CA to be elected by the elected members of the provincial assemblies. Seats to be divided into three categories: General, Muslim, and Sikh on the basis of population in provinces. Separate Electorate. 9. Interim Government to be set up. Muslim League Reaction: The Muslim League reiterated its demand for Pakistan. It accepted the plan for two reasons: Basis and foundation of Pakistan was in the compulsory grouping and the right to ask for review. 26 Congress Reaction: The Congress was critical of groupings and right to ask for review of constitutional relationship. It agreed to contest elections for the CA but declined to be bound by the proposals of the Cabinet Plan. The nonsensical stand of the Congress was that they were ‘free to make any change in the proposal.’ Definitely the ML was alarmed by the Congress’ intentions. Interim Government: Representation in the Interim Government became controversial on the question of who would nominate the Muslims representative. To put pressure on the government, the Congress refused to join the Interim Government and the British postponed it. The ML was disappointed by the British behaviour and decided to review its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan. Direct Action Day: August 16, 1946 The ML’s timely coercive political strategy brought the Congress on table with the British. The Interim Government was formed under Nehru on September 2, 1946 and the ML stayed away. They joined it on October 25, 1946: Liaquat Ali Khan Sardar Abdur-Rab Nishtar Raja Gazanfar Ali I. I. Chundrigar J. N. Mandal There were a number of problems of smooth functioning of the Interim Government due to the Muslim-Hindu differences. Constituent Assembly: CA (Constituent Assembly) was elected by the provincial assemblies in July 1946. ML won all Muslim seats except 5 while the Congress won all general seats except 9. The first session was held on December 9, 1946 and the ML boycotted it because the Congress wanted to frame the Constitution for United India. The ML demanded two constituent assemblies and showed its firmness on the demand for Pakistan. By the end of 1946, it had become clear that a constitution for united India could not be forced. The Cabinet Mission Plan offered a possibility of a loose federation with an option to the Muslims to separate after ten years. 27 Lecture 13 Pak301 Towards Independence, 1947 Civil Disobedience Movements: The ML decided to confront the political situation through the protesting means for the first time. The Congress had been working on these lines but the Muslim leaders considered politics a gentle man’s game. Now when the British government joined hands to oust the Muslims from the constitutional and moral position they decided to launch ‘Direct Action.’ The ML revised its decision rejecting the Cabinet Mission Plan. Direct Action Day (August 16, 1946) was a protest against the British policy of injustice towards the Muslims. The Hindu attacks transmuted the course of the protests and concluded huge life casualties. The Calcutta massacre convinced Lord Wavell to bridge the ML-Congress to some settlement. Wavell tried to prepare Nehru and Gandhi to coordinate the ML. It was imperative to do because Muslim League (95% seats) refused to join the Legislative Assembly. Congress rejected all the possible offers even from the government. Churchill snubbed the Labour government on the Calcutta riots and the Viceroy requested Jinnah to join the Interim Government that Jinnah accepted. On October 25, 1946, the members of the Executive Council were finalized. Punjab: ML had bagged 79 out of 86 seats in Punjab but Khizr Hayat Tiwana formed his government with the help of Hindu and Sikh members (Unionist). The ML confronted this conspiracy and protested to restore the people’s will (Feb. 1947). The Punjab government dealt with the situation cruelly. Here the Muslim women played very outstanding role in the ML struggle. The Khizr Government resigned and Governor’s rule was imposed on March 2, 1947. Assam: Maulana Bhashani launched a movement against the ejection of Muslim peasants. Announcement of February 20, 1947: Prime Minister Attlee declared by June 1948, all power would be given to representatives. If no constitution was framed, the British Government will think whether the powers be given to provincial governments. In some areas or any other alternative that is in the interest of Indians. Mountbatten was appointed new Viceroy of India. Mountbatten as Viceroy: Mountbatten arrived in Delhi on March 22, 1947. The basic objective of his appointment was to wind up British rule. He arranged dialogue with the Indian leaders. Then he visited England for deliberations for new plan. 3rd June Plan: • The British will not impose a constitution but the Constituent Assembly will frame a constitution. • The constitution will not be imposed on the areas that do not accept it. Opinion will be sought from them if they want to set up a separate CA (Constituent Assembly). • Punjab & Bengal Assemblies will meet in two parts, members from Muslim majority areas and other districts separately to decide if the province be partitioned. • If any part decides for partition, each group will decide which CA they wish to join. • Sind Assembly will decide about joining either side. 28 • Referendum in NWFP • Balochistan: appropriate method • Boundary Commission for Punjab and Bengal • Princely states to decide for themselves keeping in view their geographical contiguity. Indian Independence Act July 1947: To give legal shape to the June 3 Plan, the Indian Independence Act was promulgated (July 1947). • Two independent dominion states on August 15, 1947 • Their legislatures will have all powers to make laws for the respective states. • Government of India Act, 1935, to be interim constitution subject to changes due to Indian Independence Act 1947. • Governor Generals can amend the Interim Constitution until March 31, 1948. • All arrangements between the British and the Princely states to come to an end and they will have new arrangements with the new states. • British King will no longer use the title of the King of India The Partition Process: Punjab The Muslim members favoured joining new CA. the non-Muslims voted for partition and joining India. Bengal Muslims favoured joining new CA while non-Muslims favoured partitioning and joining India. Sindh The Assembly voted to join Pakistan. NWFP Referendum decided in favour of Pakistan while Dr. Khan’s govt. boycotted it after it became clear that it would lose. Balochistan Shahi Jirga and the non-official members of Quetta Municipal Committee opted for Pakistan. Sylhet Referendum was held to join East Bengal for joining Pakistan. Governor General’s Issue: Mountbatten wanted to be joint GG (Governor General) of India and Pakistan while ML decided to appoint Jinnah as the first Governor General of Pakistan in July. Transfer of Power: 1st meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on August 11, 1947 and the ceremonies on August 14. Radio announcement was made at midnight 14-15 Aug. Oath taking ceremony for GG (Governor General) and PM (Prime Minister) was held on August 15 1947. Boundaries determined on August 17: Boundaries Commission award declared many controversial decisions about certain areas like Gurdaspur, Zira Tehsil etc, but the ML accepted it with protest. 29 Lecture 14 Pak301 Constitutional Development in British India Following acts were introduced by the British government in India. Indian Councils Act, 1861 Indian Councils Act, 1892 Government of India Act, 1909 Government of India Act, 1919 Government of India Act, 1935 End of East India Company’s Rule: On August 2, 1858 British Parliament passed a law for complete takeover of all rights of the East India Company over India. Post of Secretary of State for India was created through the cabinet. The Secretary of State for India was empowered about government and revenues of India. On November 1, 1858 Queen Victoria issued a proclamation for the assumption of control of India by the British Crown. Lord Canning, Governor General of India was given the title of “Viceroy.” He continued in office but not as the Company’s representative but direct representative of British Crown. Moreover armies of the Company came under British Control. Indian Council Act, 1861 This act was the first legislation by the British government in India. Before that laws were promulgated by the East India Company. According to this act: Governor General could assign special tasks to any members of the Executive Council. Important matters were to be discussed with the Governor General. Some important subjects were kept directly under the Viceroy, e. g., Foreign Department. Membership of the Council was raised: 6 to 12. Half of them were to be non-officials, nominated for two years. The Council had limited legislative powers. In Madras and Bombay Councils approval of the Governor General (GG) and Governor was needed. This act provided Indian representation by nomination. Indian Council Act of 1892 By this act: Size of Legislative Council increased. In Central Legislative Council the membership was increased: 10 to 16 members. At Provincial level representation was increased. In Madras & Bombay 8 to 12, Bengal 12 to 20. Limited powers were given to the legislatures. Questions could be asked. Nominal elections through special interests were allowed. GG and the British government made these appointments. Government of India Act, 1909 (Minto-Morley Reforms) This act was another step towards giving Indians more representation in the Government. This act provided Expansion of Legislative Councils Central: Additional members up to 60 But official majority remained there. Provincial: Size varied in different provinces. Bombay, Madras, Bengal, UP: 50 Non-official majority Not all the members were elected. Powers of the Councils were increased. Now 30 Budget could be discussed. Members were allowed to present Resolutions and put up questions. Executive Councils were formed for Bombay, Madras and Bengal and Lt. Governor Provinces. Elections were to be held by University Senate, District Boards, Municipal Committees, Zamindars, and Chambers of Commerce. Separate Electorate was accepted for minorities. Government of India Act, 1919 (Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms) In the background of some significant developments between 1909-1919 like World War I- 1914- 1918, political activity during Tehrik-i-Khilaphat, change in Muslim League objectives, Lucknow Pact 1916 etc., the British government announced that gradual induction of Indians in all branches of government would be done. Gradual introduction of responsible government would be done. Commissioned ranks of Army would be given to the Indians. Mr. Montagu, Secretary of State visited India from November 1917 to April 1918 and discussed the constitutional matters with Viceroy Lord Chelmsford and the Indian political leaders. The outcome was the government of India Act 1919. Salient Features, Government of India Act 1919 This act provided a bicameral legislature at the Centre, which consisted of two houses. One was the Council of State with a membership of 60, out of which 34 were to be elected and 26 nominated official & nonofficial members. The Council’s tenure was fixed at 5 years. Legislative Assembly was consisted of 145 members, out of whom 105 were elected and the rest would be nominated. Direct elections were introduced with limited franchise on the basis of property, tax paying, previous experience of legislative councils, university senate, district councils, etc. Separate Electorate for minorities. Limited law making powers were assigned to the Legislature but for certain categories prior permission was required. It had no control over defense, foreign policy, budget etc. Legislature could refuse grants but GG could restore them. Questions, Resolutions, Adjournment Motions were allowed. G.G. remained a powerful office with all the executive, legislative powers with a nominated Executive Council. Two lists of subjects were given in the act, one was Central and the other was Provincial. Centre had overriding powers. Provincial Legislative Councils Membership increased. 70 percent were elected. They were having limited powers. They could reject budget but GG could restore it. Diarchy System in the Provinces The act introduced DIARCHY system in the provinces. According to the new arrangement subjects were divided into two categories i.e., Reserved subjects and Transferred subjects. Reserved subjects included judiciary, canal, land revenue, Finance, press, power, etc. Transferred subjects included Local govt. education, public health. In case of a dispute, if something belonged to reserved or transferred side, the Governor was entitled to make the final decision. Limited Responsible Government at the provincial level was introduced. The system of Diarchy was complicated. The continuous tussle between the elected and nominated members created fear of breakdown of administration. GG had Control on key departments. Elective elements became strong in the legislatures. Government of India Act, 1935 31 It was the most important and most comprehensive legislation introduced by the British Government in India. It was gradually formulated starting with the Simon Commission, Round Table Conferences, White paper (1933) and J.S.C. it was a lengthy document passed by the parliament in July 1935 and got Royal assent in August 1935. Salient Features It provided a Federal System with a centre, 11 Governor Provinces, 6 Chief Commissioner Provinces and the states willing to join it. Three lists of subjects were given with a powerful centre. Federal list had Defense, Postal srevices, External affairs, Coinage and Communication. Provincial list included education, police, Local self-government, justice, agriculture, public service, fisheries and forests. The concurrent list included criminal law, civil marriage, divorce, registration, bankruptcy, factories and succession. Two houses of Central Legislature: i. Council of State comprised of 260 members, out of which 156 were from British provinces and 104 from Indian States. Method of election was indirect. Communal representation was also secured. ii. Federal Assembly was lower house consisted of 375 members. Out of which 250 represented British provinces and 125 from Indian States. They were elected by provincial legislatures on the principle of separate electorate. States were to nominate their members. Limited Powers were given to legislature: 80 percent of budget was above their vote. They could do law making for two lists but GG could turn down or refuse the bill keeping it for consideration of the British Government. This constitution provided a Powerful GG: Executive Chief having powers of == Act on advice == Independent Judgment == Discretion == Emergency powers == Ordinances == Power to rule provinces directly Provincial Governments: Governors enjoy the powers like the GG in the Centre. == Diarchy abolished in provinces. == Responsible government was formed. == Provincial legislatures not unicameral. Act provided for bicameral legislatures in six provinces and unicameral in five provinces. == Franchise extended but still restricted on the basis of land revenue Rs. 5, Non-transferable property of Rs. 60, Education: Primary. 11. Federal Court and High Courts were formed under the act. 12. Burma was separated from India. 13. Sindh was separated from Bombay. Comments: == Federal part of the act was not introduced. == Provincial part introduced in 1937. == Provincial autonomy was provided. == Elected governments were formed in provinces == A strong centre was maintained. == This act expanded electorate. == Indian government under this act had no control over defense. == Indian legislature could not amend it. == Federal legislature elected indirectly 32 Lecture 15 Pak301 The Problems of the New State The attainment of independence brought an end to one phase of the struggle and marked the beginning of a new one for setting up and running a viable, stable and prosperous state. Pakistan began its independent life under very difficult and unfavorable circumstances. Pakistan faced serious problems in the initial stages. 1. New Administration 2. Division of Assets 3. Integration of Princely States 4. Communal Riots and Arrival of Refugees 5. Canal water and trade issues 1: New Administration The shortage of trained human power especially senior officers was a serious problem in the setting up of federal government in Karachi. Most of them had migrated to India. There was a shortage of office space, equipment and furniture. This disturbed the direct connections between the federal government and provincial governments. On the other hand, the provincial governments were overburdened that needed very accurate connection between the centre and the provinces to solve the problems of the Muslim refugees who had nothing to eat, drink, wear, rest, etc. To counter the critical situation, the official system should have been efficient but due to the lack of all these facilities the administrative authorities were painfully facing difficulties. 2: Division of Assets The Indian government was not cooperative for transfer of record and equipment to Pakistan. The civil administration was not handing over the promised financial, military, and other shares that created mountainous hurdles to eradicate the pains and miseries of the refugees. Financial Assets The full financial share of Pakistan was not transferred. Initially rupees 200 million were transferred that were not sufficient to meet the expenditures of the newly born state. The Indian government was so reactionary that it tried its level best to block these funds to suffocate the newly born Muslim state as they expected foolishly that Pakistan would collapse and rejoin India soon after its existence. They did not release the remaining funds until Gandhi’s threat of marn bert (fast until death). Under this pressure, more funds were sent in early 1948 but no installment was later paid. Military’s Division As far as the problem in dividing man power there was no serious setback because the division was not in the hand of third person and Muslims were free to come to their dreamland, Pakistan. Anyhow, their shifting was slow and insecure. There were obstacles in the Pakistan’s share of weapons, equipment, and stores. The broken and damaged stuff was sent by India. Pakistan did not get any ordinance factory. Reorganization of the Armed Forces was another tough job and the there was no army officer up to the rank of colonel. The shortage of experienced officers convinced British officers to continue their services. This also accelerated undue promotion in the military services to fill the gap. 3: Integration of Princely States There were over 560 princely states in India on the verge of the partition of India. About 500 states had joined India before August 15 because of the motivation by V. P. Menon and Mountbatten. The princes were inclined to honour every gesture of the British representative so 33 they conceded what the member of the Royal family (Mountbatten) wished. The Hindu-British conspiracy blocked states to join Pakistan. Junagadh It was a small state with access to sea having about 7 lakh population and 3377 mile area. The ruler was Muslim while the majority of its population was Hindu. The ruler decided to accede to Pakistan and Pakistan also accepted the accession. In November 1947, the Indian troops entered the state and took its control. The referendum favoured India. Hyderabad It was geographically big and financially a rich state. Its ruler was Muslim and majority population was Hindu. It was surrounded by India from all sides. The Nizam wanted to stay independent. Mountbatten discouraged him and signed Standstill Agreement. But India built pressure on the Nizam by sending its troops in September 1948 claiming that serious law and order situation had developed. The state was integrated in India. Kashmir The most important state was Kashmir naturally connected with Pakistan. Its ruler was Hindu while population was Muslim. The population inclined towards Pakistan but the Hindu ruler declared to join India. The Kashmiri people revolt against the ruler in Poonch area and soon it became widespread. The ruler sought Indian support. India demanded accession. On October 27, 1947 Indian troops landed in Srinagar. The people continued their struggle for independence and India promised to finally settle the matter with reference to the people under the UN Resolutions. 4: Communal Riots and Refugees The Communal riots occurred earlier in August 1946. The killing of Muslims in Indian areas forced them to leave India. The Sikhs and Hindus attacked the refugee caravans and trains. There were organized gangs to kill the Muslims. The refugee problem created critical condition in the border areas. The massive migration proved serious economic and humanitarian problems for the new state. The military was asked to help cope with the refugee problem. 5: Canal Water Problem The major rivers flow from Kashmir and some canal heads located in India. In 1948, India cut off water to some canal that was a serious threat to agriculture in West Pakistan. The Indian plans to build water storage on the rivers that are vital for Pakistan’s economy worsened the situation. It also showed the traditional anti-Muslim attitude. The World Bank settled the problem in September 1960 (Indus Water Treaty). Trade Problem and the Economy India devalued its currency in 1949 but Pakistan refused to do so. It stopped trade that adversely affected Pakistan’s economy as it depended on trade from India. Pakistan had inherited a weak economy and poor industrial base. The beginning years of Pakistan were troubled and difficult due to the India’s non-helpful policy and the war in Kashmir. It had profound impact on Pakistan’s worldview and its relations with India. Pakistan strived for its survival and security. Many Indians and the British predicted the collapse of Pakistan. They were of the opinion that very soon the Muslims would realize their blunder. They would be forced by the circumstances to go back to join India. But PAKISTAN, by the grace of Almighty Allah, was able to meet the challenge even with its problems. 34 Lecture 16 Pak301 The Objectives Resolution (1949) The Objectives Resolution was the first constitutional document that proved to be the ‘foundation’ of the constitutional developments in Pakistan. It provided parameters and sublime principles to the legislators. It made the constitution-making process easy task setting some particular objectives before them that would be acceptable to the people of Pakistan who had suffered a lot under the Hindu-dominated majority. The Resolution was moved by Liaquat Ali Khan, the then Prime Minister of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, and approved on March 12, 1949. The Constituent Assembly (1947-54) The first Constituent Assembly came into existence under Indian Independence Act 1947. The elections were held in July 1946 to decide the destiny of the All India Muslim League (AIML)’s claim that it is the only representative party of the Indian Muslims that desire separate homeland, Pakistan. The members from the districts that became part of Pakistan were declared members of the Constituent Assembly. The number of such members was 69. It increased to 79 after the 1947 when some states joined Pakistan and then increase in the population. There were two major parties, Muslim League and Congress in the Assembly at that time. This Assembly had dual functions to perform. Features of the Objectives Resolution 1. Sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to Almighty Allah alone. 2. The authority which He has delegated to the state of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust. 3. Constitution will be framed for sovereign, independent state of Pakistan. 4. The state shall exercise its power through the representatives of the people. 5. Principles of Democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam will be fully observed. 6. Muslims shall be enabled to organize their lives in accordance with the teachings and requirements of Islam as set out in the Quran and the Sunnah. 7. Minorities to have freedom to freely profess and practice their religions and develop their cultures. 8. Provisions for safeguarding the legitimate interests of minorities, backward and depressed classes. 9. Pakistan shall be a Federation with autonomous units. State’s sovereignty and territorial integrity will be protected. 10. People of Pakistan should prosper and attain their rightful place in the comity of nations and make contribution towards international peace and progress and happiness of humanity. Explanation and Importance The Resolution declared the sovereignty of God as the distinctive political philosophy. The Western democracy gives the notion that sovereignty lies in the people but this Resolution is important having the concept of the sovereignty of God. It clarified that people would utilize powers gifted by God so they would have to work within the limits prescribed by Him. The exercise of the powers is a sacred trust. The representatives of the people of Pakistan will manage the affairs under the universal ideology of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance, and social justice with the spirit of an Islamic framework. 35 The Resolution pledged to give the due respect and rights to the minorities, backward and depressed classes in the benign society of Pakistan. Their rights, interests, religion and culture were not confuted. It’s important that the Resolution promised the federating units for due powers, autonomy and territorial integrity. Objections by Non-Muslims The major objection by the Non-Muslims was that the government was trying to mix the religion and politics that was against the spirit of democracy. The non-Muslims objected on the ‘Sovereignty of Allah’ and minorities’ rights, saying it would promote inequality in the society. They were also of view that Shariah was not adequate for the modern time. They feared that it would encourage the religious extremists to work for the establishment of a ‘theocratic state.’ Importance The Objectives Resolution is a basic and primary document of the constitutional history of Pakistan. It is a framework that provides mechanism to achieve goals for a better life of the people of Pakistan. It’s important that it embraces centrality of Islam to polity sustaining their links with the pre-independence period. The AIML leaders were modernist Muslims not in favour of an orthodox religious state. Therefore, they selected the middle way abiding by the Islamic laws and the international democratic values. The Resolution remained ‘Preamble of all the constitutions due to its importance. 36 Lecture 17 Pak301 Constitutional Issues Constitution is a set of basic principles and framework for governance and exercise of political power and legal authority. It clarifies the scope of power, relationship among various institutions within the government and society. It has precedence over ordinary laws and cannot be changed like ordinary laws. The Government of India Act (1935) was modified and promulgated in the newly state of Pakistan. The elected members in the 1946 elections made the first Constituent Assembly that faced grievous circumstances. Major Issues The major issues, the first constituent assembly faced, were about: 1. Federalism 2. Representation 3. Separate or Joint Electorate 4. The National Language Issue 5. Parliamentary or Presidential system 6. The Islamic or Secular State 1: Federalism There was consensus on federalism but yet there were many issues to be settled. The main was that Pakistan consisted of two territorial parts, East Pakistan (with more population, less territory but administratively one unit) and West Pakistan (administratively 4 units). Federalism is meant to accommodate such kind of diversity maintaining the unity of the state or country. Division of power: It was the most difficult question that how the power would be divided between Centre and the Provinces. The heritage of British rule gave the tradition of a Strong Centre. But the provinces were demanding more Autonomy and Provincial Rights. In the Interim Constitution and the 1956 Constitution tradition of strong centre continued. 2: Representation Representation at the federal level was another conflicting issue because East Pakistan and West Pakistan were different in population and size. On the other hand there was diversity in Western part of Pakistan. The provinces of West Pakistan were also different in population and size. All of them were sensitive to their representation and provincial autonomy. To have a Standard Formula for the representation of units and population the Constituent Assembly (CA) formed a Basic Principle Committee (BPC) on March 12, 1949. The primary task of this committee was to frame a set of basic principles for the future constitution of Pakistan. 37 First BPC Report: This committee presented its first report on 28th September 1950. According to this report two houses of the parliament were proposed. The lower house was to be elected on the basis of POPULATION and the upper house was to be elected on the basis of equal representation for all the provinces of Pakistan namely East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan. Equal powers were proposed for the both Houses. No mention of National Language was made. East Bengal opposed this report and Liaqat Ali Khan withdrew it. Second BPC Report: BPC presented its final report on 22nd December 1952. According to this report two Houses of the Parliament will enjoy the equal status and powers. It proposed equal representation to East and West wing. This report also faced reaction in both the wings of Pakistan. The principle of parity was not appreciated in both East Pakistan and Punjab. Muhammad Ali Bogra Formula: Muhammad Ali Bogra immediately after assuming the office of the Prime Minister presented a formula to resolve the deadlock in constitution making. According to this formula Pakistan would have a bicameral legislature. In upper house there would be EQUAL representation to each of five units. In lower house population will be represented. In this way more representation was given to East Pakistan. Both wings would have equal strength in joint sessions of the two houses. Reaction to Bogra Formula It was welcomed in both parts of the country. The principle of parity and representation of the population was appreciated. It also solved the problem of national language by suggesting Urdu and Bengali both as national language. One Unit of West Pakistan October 1955 One Unit of West Pakistan was established on 14th October 1955. The provinces of Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan would be amalgamated in one unit to establish parity between the two parts of the country. 3: Separate or Joint Electorate Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government. But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a part of heritage. East: decided for Joint Electorate. West: Separate electorate. 1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for all Pakistan by the National Assembly. 4: The National Language Issue Pre-independence: Muslim elite all over India adopted Urdu. In 1948 Jinnah declared that Urdu would be the national language but provinces could use their languages. Opposition against Urdu was there in East Bengal. This became more pronounced after the death of Jinnah as controversies erupted on constitution making. Language Movement started in East Pakistan February, 1952. There was a complaint about anti Bengali language attitude of the federal government. 38 Two-language formula was adopted in 1954. Since 1973 Urdu was adopted as national language along with the support for development of regional languages. 5: Parliamentary or Presidential There was a consensus for parliamentary system. But there was a limited demand for presidential system. Supporters of Presidential system became dominant after the 1958 military takeover. The 1962 Constitution was a Presidential constitution. 7: The Islamic or Secular State From the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state will have close relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam and its heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly, and a few secularists. There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state will identify itself with Islam. The Constituent Assembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam. Objectives Resolution As discussed in lecture 16 Objectives Resolution rejected theocracy in Pakistan and provided the basic objectives for the future constitution of Pakistan. The issues to be addressed were: 1. Scope of legislation for an elected Assembly? 2. Who will decide about the Islamic nature of laws? Should a Board of Ulema be given this power? 3. Position of women, vote and work? 4. Religious minorities? Discussion in the Constituent Assembly and outside continued. There was an active demand by religious elements for Islamic political system. In this context the leading Ulema of various sects presented famous 22 points to provide a religious base to the future constitution. The Key Issue: What kinds of institutions and processes have to be created to translate the notion of supremacy of the Qur’an and the Sunnah • The Constituent Assembly adopted a middle course and a modernist perspective. • Spirit of Islamic principles and values, modern notions of governance, representation and administration were amalgamated. Islamic provisions would be taken up when we discuss the constitutions. ______________________________________ 39 Lecture 18 Pak301 Constitution Making (1947-56) Constitution is a basic document in the handling of domestic affairs. It sets out the framework for governance and exercise of power. It gives guiding lines of relationships among the federating units. Law making is always within its limits. The modified Government of India Act (1935) became the Interim Constitution of Pakistan in 1947. The Constituent Assembly (CA) was given the task of framing the Constitution. The first meeting of the CA was held on August 11, 1947 at Karachi. In the lecture 17 we have discussed the constitutional issues that the CA had to deal with, mainly 6 major issues. Now we will discuss the stages of constitution making. The process began with the passing of the Objectives Resolution (Lecture 16) in which the Islamic and democratic values were adopted as grounds for the future constitution. The Basic Principles Committee (BPC) consisting of 24 members was made to work for the constitutional powers. The various sub-committees on Federal and provincial powers, Franchise, Judiciary, and Fundamental Rights started working. Board of Talimat-i-Islamia was also set up to seek advice on the religious matters. First BPC Report, 1950 1: The Objectives Resolution to be included in the Constitution as the directive principles. 2: Legislature: Two houses of the parliament. Upper: (House of Units) Equal representation for the units Lower: (House of People) On the basis of Population. Both the Houses would enjoy the equal powers. 3: The Head of State elected by joint session would be for five years (Two terms only). President had discretionary and emergency, appointment and other powers. President was not answerable to anyone, might be a Muslim or non-Muslim, would be assisted by the Prime Minister (PM) and Cabinet that would be answerable to the CA. Parliament may impeach him by 2/3 majority. He was given the power to abrogate the constitution. 4: Cabinet responsible to both the Houses. 5: No mention of national language Criticism: This report was severely criticized throughout the country. It could not satisfy both the wings, East and West. The religious group objected that the report contained nothing about Islamisation. On the question of representation, the East Pakistan (EP) protested that their majority had been denied by the Report. They remarked that they were thrown into a permanent minority. The population of EP was slightly larger than that of the West Pakistan (WP) but it was treated as the small provinces because both the Houses were given equal powers. So the domination of WP was intolerable for the East wing. The language issue proved subversive to the national solidarity. The Eastern Pakistanis condemned the proposal that made Urdu as official language. Second BPC Report, 1952 1. Head of State would be Muslim and no change in powers. 2. Equal representation to East and West wings: UH (Upper House) 60, 60 LH 200, 200 3. More powers were given to Lower House. Cabinet was made responsible to Lower House. 4. It was promised that law making would be in accordance with ISLAM. No law would be made in violation of Islamic principles. 5. Advisory Board of five Islamic scholars was founded. 40 6. Silent on national language. Criticism: The politicians particularly from the Punjab deplored the Report because formation of the UH on the basis of representation was not acceptable. It was declared against the principle of federation. The WP favoured equality only for Upper House. The political crisis removed Prime Minister Nazimuddin and attention diverted from the core issue. Third Report: Muhammad Ali Formula October 1953 The proposals were revised in the light of the criticism and decided: Upper House: Equal representation to all five units Lower House: More representation to Eastern part While in joint session, both wings had equal representation: East Pak West Pak Upper House 10 40 Lower House 165 135 —————————— Joint Session 175 175 Decision by majority but it must include 30 percent members from each zone. Criticism: It suggested some difficult process but mostly it was widely acceptable. Two languages, Urdu and Bengali, were approved as official languages that injured the national unity as Quaid-iAzam had wished Urdu as national language. This is important that after the Formula, the work began on constitution drafting because the deadlock was over. CA Dissolution In October 1954, GG (Governor General) dissolved the CA that was challenged in the Sindh court by Maulvi Tamizuddin. The court declared the dissolution illegal but the Federal Court upheld the GG action but asked for setting up an elected CA. 2nd Constituent Assembly, June-July 1955 Ghulam Muhammad called a Convention on May 10, 1955. All its members were to be elected indirectly (by the provincial assemblies). In this way, the 2nd CA came into existence. One Unit Scheme, October 1955 The presence of different provinces in the WP had complicated the issue of the WP representation in the CA. It was handled by uniting all the WP units into ONE (One Unit, October 30, 1955). Now both the parts had become two units and could be addressed equally. Constitution-making One Unit scheme helped the task of constitution making to accomplish successfully. The previous committees report helped the new Assembly that completed its work and presented in the 2nd CA on January 9, 1956. It, with certain amendments, was approved on January 29, 1956 and enforced on March 23. With this Pakistan had become an Islamic Republic. 41 Lecture 19 Pak301 The 1956 Constitution The Constitution of 1956 was passed after long deliberations. It replaced the Interim Constitution. It has 234 Articles and 6 Schedules. It declared that the name of the country would be the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. There was clear impact of the Government of India Act, 1935 and the Interim Constitution. Features 1: Parliamentary System Executive Authority vested in the President who exercised it on the advice of the Prime Minister except in the matters he had discretion. President had ceremonial functions and exercised limited powers. The President would be of 45 years of age, Muslim and qualified to be a member of National Assembly. He was to be elected by National Assembly (NA) and Provincial Assemblies. Prime Minister PM would be appointed by President. President could not remove him unless he was sure that PM did not enjoythe support of majority in the National Assembly. The President would be its sole judge. He could ask PM to show his support. Cabinet was collectively responsible to NA. PM was the head of government assisted by cabinet. One House Parliament: National Assembly was the only house of the parliament having a membership of 300 plus10 women seats. Principle of parity was observed for representation. Method of direct elections was adopted for general seats. All legislative powers were rested with NA. President could return, reject or sign the bills. Regarding monetary bills of ordinary expenditure NA had all powers but they could not vote on Consolidated Fund List. Salaries of President, judges, federal service commission, etc. were to be paid through Consolidated Fund. NA could control the Executive. 2: Federal System The constitution provided three lists: Federal, Provincial and Concurrent. There were two Provinces in the federation of Pakistan. 3: Provincial Structure: At the provincial level there was elected Assembly. The Parliamentary System under the nominal headship of Governor. The real powers were given to Chief Ministers and his cabinet. Centre had some overriding powers and some Emergency powers too. They were Clause 191: Security or economic life was under threat for external or internal reasons. Clause 193: Constitutional crisis in provinces. 42 4: Independent Judiciary At centre level the highest court was Supreme Court, then High Courts in provinces and subordinate courts were established. Higher Courts have the power of Interpretation of the constitution. They could hear the disputes between governments. They were guardians of the Legal rights of the citizens. 5: Fundamental Rights Civil and Political Rights were given to the people of Pakistan but they could be suspended in case of emergency. 6: Directive Principles of State Policy These principles provided guidelines for policy making. Principles of Objectives Resolution were included as preamble. The other principles included surety about Islamic practices, Welfare of people, non-discrimination, and fulfillment of basic needs, etc. 7: Islamic Character The name of the country was the Islamic Republic, Objectives Resolution was the Preamble. Other Islamic clauses were part of Directive Principles. No law can be made to violate Islamic principles and teachings. Existing laws would be brought in conformity with Islamic teachings. A Commission was to be appointed to examine the laws for bringing them in conformity. Whether a Law is Islamic or not, NA had to decide. The matter could be taken up with the Judiciary. Islam was not declared state religion. Islamic heritage and roots are combined with modern notions of governance and a moderate political system was adopted. Working of the Constitution No elections were held after the enforcement of elections. It was finally abrogated on October 7, 1958. It worked from March 23, 1956 to October 7, 1958. 43 Lecture 20 Pak301 The 1962 Constitution 1. Background 2. Constitution-making 3. Salient Features 1: Background Military took over on 7 October 1958 and consequently Ayub Khan became Chief Martial Law Administrator. One major task was to frame a new Constitution. The administration was critical of Parliamentary system because it caused instability in the past. They sought stability of the nation in the gradual development of democracy. 2: Constitution Making The government introduced Basic Democracies in October 1959. Under this system Forty Thousand basic democrats (local councilors) were to be elected in each province. They have to perform functions as local government and their role in developmental work. They also acted as an electoral college for the election of president and the national assembly. Elections for the Basic Democracies (BD) were held in December 1959 and January 1960. Then Presidential referendum was held by the elected BD members on February 17, 1960. A Constitutional Commission was established in February 1960 under the chairmanship of Justice Shahabuddin, former Chief Justice. The tasks assigned to the Commission were: • To examine the causes of failure of Parliamentary system. • Recommend a new system keeping in view the (a) genius of people (b) standard of education (c) internal conditions of the country (d) need of development Commission presented its report in May 1961 after then two committees reviewed it. Under the report of these committees the new Constitution was drafted. Ayub announced the Constitution on March 1, 1962. Elections to the National Assembly (NA) and Provincial Assemblies (PAs) were held in April and May 1962 respectively. The new Constitution was enforced on June 8, 1962. Martial Law was withdrawn. The new Constitution was consisted of 250 articles, 5 schedules. 3: Salient Features of the Constitution 1: Title of the State Republic and Islamic Republic 2: Presidential System A Powerful President who was responsible for administration and affairs of the state. He should be a Muslim, at least 40 years of age, should be qualified to be a member of NA. He would be elected through indirect elections for a period of five years. If he has held office for more than 8 years, he could seek reelection with the approval of the NA and the PAs. National Assembly was given the power to impeach the president, however it was difficult to achieve. President could dissolve the NA but in that case he must seek re-election. Powers of the President: President was the Focal point of all the Executive, Legislative and Judicial powers. Cabinet was responsible to him. All key appointments were to be made by President. He could issue Ordinances. He could also declare State of Emergency in the country. 44 3: National Assembly (NA) NA was consisted of one house on the basis of principle of parity between two wings of the country. There were 150 seats plus 6 seats were reserved for women. All were elected indirectly. For the membership minimum age limit was 25 years. Legislative Powers: NA had all the powers of law making but law was to be finally ratified by the president. President could sign, reject or return the bill. Financial Powers Financial Powers of NA were limited. Only new expenditure could be voted. NA could not reject Consolidate Fund List and Recurring Expenditure. 4: Federalism There were two provinces of the federation: East Pakistan and West Pakistan. Only one list of subjects, i.e. the Central list was given in the constitution. Provincial Governments Governors were head of the provinces and govern the province with his cabinet. Provincial governments were directly under the control of President. There was a strong center with a Powerful President. He had enough powers to manage provincial affairs. In case of emergency powers Central government could take direct control of the province. 5. Principles of Policy • National solidarity would be observed. • Interests of backward people would be looked after. • Opportunities for participation in national life. • Education and well being of people. • Islam would be implemented in day to day life. 6: Fundamental Rights Fundamental Rights were provided in the constitution. 7: Political Parties Originally Political Parties were not allowed. Political Parties Act was introduced in 1962. Islamic Provisions Objectives Resolution was the Preamble of the Constitution. Other Islamic provisions were a part of Principles of Policy and not the constitution. Advisory Council for Islamic Ideology An Advisory Council for Islamic Ideology was made in the constitution having 5-12 members. It was a recommendatory body. Islamic Research Institute It was designed for the Research and instructions in Islam for assisting the reconstruction of Muslim society on truly Islamic lines. Working of the Constitution Constitution remained enforced from June 8, 1962 to March 25, 1969. 45 Lecture 21 Pak301 The 1973 Constitution 1. Background 2. Constitution Making 3. Features 1: Background Abrogation of the 1962 Constitution on March 25, 1969 led to second martial law in the country. Yahya Khan handed over power to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on December 20, 1971 after the first general elections. But martial law continued and there was no constitution. National Assembly approved an Interim Constitution, which was enforced on April 21, 1972. 2: Constitution Making Constitutional Committee comprising National Assembly (NA) members from all parties was set up in April 1972. Law Minister was the Chairman of this Committee. All parties agreed on the future political system in October 1972. The Committee reported on December 31, 1972. After long deliberations and compromises final draft was approved unanimously on April 10, 1973. The new Constitution was enforced on August 14, 1973. The Constitution functioned since then with two gaps. It remained operational during following periods: 1973-77: Operational 1977-1985: Suspended 1985-1999: Operational after changes 1999-2002 : Suspended 2002 onwards Operational after changes 3: Features of the Constitution 1: Parliamentary System It was a parliamentary constitution having powerful Prime Minister (PM) as head of government with a very weak President. President must act on the advice of PM. All his orders were to be countersigned by PM. Prime Minister to be elected by the NA. PM exercised all executive authority. PM was answerable to the NA. In 1985, powers of the President were increased. He enjoyed some discretion in appointments of PM. He had power to dissolve the NA. He had the powers of appointment of caretaker PM. He gives his assent to bills passed by the parliament or returns these. President: Must be at least 45 years of age, Muslim, qualified to become member of the NA. He is elected by the Parliament and the Provincial Assemblies for 5 years. Parliament with two houses: • Upper House called Senate. In this house equal representation is given to Provinces. Seats are reserved for the tribal areas, women and technocrats. Its original strength was 63, which was later raised to 87 and then 100. Senate is elected indirectly. It’s a permanent House as half of its members are elected after three years. • Lower House: National Assembly is elected on population basis. Its Original strength was 210 but now it is 342. NA is elected for five years. 46 • Senate: Indirect elections • National Assembly: Direct elections • Voting age for the franchise is lowered from 21 to 18. • Parliament under 1973 constitution is a powerful legislative body. It enjoys all legislative powers. It has control of the executive through questions, resolutions, parliamentary committees etc. • National Assembly is more powerful than the Senate. Budget is presented before NA. Cabinet is answerable to National Assembly. Federal System Federation of Pakistan has four provinces and federally administered areas. Two lists are given in the constitution: Federal list and Concurrent list. Residuary powers belong to provinces. Provincial Structure: Provincial Governors are appointed by the President on the advice of the PM. Elected Chief Minister exercises executive powers. Parliamentary system is there in the provinces. Size of the provincial assemblies varies: In 2002: Punjab 371 Sindh 168 NWFP 124 Balochistan 65 Enough provincial autonomy is guaranteed. Tradition of strong centre continues. Centre has emergency powers. Governor’s rule can be imposed if the government cannot function in the provinces. Provinces are dependent on centre for Finances. 1. Principles of Policy: a. Islamic provisions are provided in Principles of Policy. Foreign policy principles are also given under this heading. 2. Fundamental Rights: a. Fundamental Rights are secured in the constitution and are implemented through the highest court. 3. Islamic Provisions: a. Title of the state is Islamic Republic of Pakistan. b. The objectives resolution was the Preamble in the initial constitution but through article 2-A of 8th amendment it was inserted in the constitution in 1985. c. Islam was declared the State Religion of Pakistan. d. Definition of Muslim was included by an amendment. e. Principles of Policy also carry some Islamic clauses. f. Council for Islamic Ideology is established under the constitution. g. Federal Shariat Court was added in 1981. 4. National Language: a. Urdu is declared National Language, however English may be used for official purposes until arrangements would be made for its replacement by Urdu. b. Provincial Assembly may prescribe measures for teaching, promotion and use of a provincial language in addition to the national language. 5. National Security Council: a. National Security Council was added in 2002 in advisory capacity. 6. Judiciary: a. An independent judiciary is given under the constitution. Supreme Court of Pakistan is the highest court. One High Court is established in each province and one in Azad Kashmir. A chain of lower courts is there under the high courts. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ 47 Lecture 22 Pak301 Political History I. 1947-1971 II. 1972- to the Present • First Part: 1947-1971 I. 1947-58 II. 1958-69 III. 1969-71 1: First Eleven Years (1947-58) Pakistan won independence under extremely difficult conditions. The next task was setting up of a new state. There was no administrative structure. Riots, refugee’s problem and economic pressures were challenging for the new state. Negative attitude from Indian government and war on Kashmir created problems in relations with India. The Government of India Act 1935 was adopted as the first Interim Constitution. Quaid-iAzam Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General (GG) of Pakistan and Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister (PM). Governor Generals: 1. M. A. Jinnah August Sept. 1947-Sept. 1948 2. Kh. Nazimuddin Sept. 1948-Oct 1951 3. Ghulam Mohammad Oct. 1951-Oct. 1955 4. Iskander Mirza Oct. 1955-March 1956 President: 1. Iskander Mirza March 1956-Oct. 1958 Prime Ministers: 1: Liaquat Ali Khan August 1947-Oct 1951 2: Kh. Nazimuddin Oct. 1951-April 1953 3: Muhammad Ali Bogra (i) April 1953-Oct 1954 Oct. (ii) 1954-August 1955 4: Ch. Muhammad Ali August 1955-Sept 1956 5: H.S. Suhrawardy Sept. 1956-Oct 1957 6: I.I. Chundrigar Oct. 1957-Dec 1957 7: Firoz Khan Noon Dec. 1957-Oct. 1958 Major Issues • Constitution-making • Elections at the provincial level Punjab, NWFP 1951 Sindh 1953 East Bengal 1954 • 1st Constituent Assembly (CA) was dissolved and 2nd CA was constituted in 1955. • One Unit Scheme October 1955 • Economic management, Agriculture, Industrialization and Education was a question dealt in 1st Five Year Plan. • Political Instability was there. Weak and short-lived governments shattered the whole political system. 48 • Decline of Political Parties created bad name for politicians. • Instability was also there at the provincial level. 2: Second Phase (1958-69) Martial Law remained imposed from October 1958 to June 1962. Constitutional Rule was restored on June 1962 and remained till the 2nd Martial Law on March 1969. Ayub Khan took over as Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA) and the President. He got himself elected through referendum in 1960 and re-elected in January 1965 through presidential elections. Important Policy Measures Important Policy Measures taken by the Ayub government were: • Administrative Reforms which included removal of unwanted officials, some 1662 in number. • Restrictions on political activities. Political leaders were stopped from taking part in politics for 6 years on the charge of corruption and other charges under the law named EBDO. • Economic planning was done for industrial development and green Revolution. • Educational Reforms • Constitution was introduced. Downfall of Ayub Khan: Indo-Pakistan war started and at the end of war Tashkand Pact was signed with India. People were not satisfied with this pact. They also resented the election results of 1965. Fruits of economic development were not distributed at masses level. Wealth of nation was concentrated in a few hands. This brought people to agitation and public demand resulted in resignation of the president. 3: Third Phase (1969-71) Ayub Khan handed over power to Army Chief Yahya Khan. He imposed Martial Law and 1962 Constitution was abrogated. He took some immediate steps: == Removal of officers 303 == Provinces Revived: March 30, 1970 == Abolition of Parity == Legal Framework Order (LFO) as interim law issued in March 1970 which provided basic principles for: • Constitution making • Rules and regulations for elections • Seats in the assemblies National Assembly 313 (300 plus 13 women seats) For East Pak 162 plus 7 West Pak 138 plus 6 General Elections General Elections were held in December 1970. Election Results were: Awami League 160 general seats Pakistan People’s Party 81 general seats Transfer of power became a major problem. Failure of dialogue for transfer of Power among three top leaders led to confrontation and military action on March 25, 1971. It ultimately resulted in Civil war and alienation of East Pakistan. India played a very negative role. It attacked on East Pakistan and India-Pakistan war started which ended with the separation of East Pakistan. 49 Lecture 23 Pak301 Political History (1972-2003) 1. 1972-1977 2. 1977-1985 3. 1985-1999 4. 1999-2002 5. 2002 onwards 6. 1: 1972-1977: Z. A. Bhutto assumed power on December 20, 1971. First he became President of Pakistan and also the first civilian Chief Marshal Law Administrator. Major Policies The first task was the Constitution making. In 1972 Interim Constitution was adopted and then the Parliament of Pakistan unanimously adopted 1973 Constitution. The major policy of Mr. Bhutto was Nationalisation. His government nationalised: 1. Emerald mines in Swat 2. Key industries like Iron & Steel, Basic metals, heavy engineering, heavy electrical, Motor Vehicles & Tractors, Heavy & Basic Chemicals, PetroChemicals, Cement, Gas, Oil Refinery etc. 3. Life Insurance in 1972 4. Banks in 1974 5. Schools and Colleges in 1972. New University Ordinance was issued in 1973. 6. Managing and sub-agencies were abolished. Labour Policy A new Labour Policy was announced in which more rights and concessions were given to the working classes. Health Policy Under new Health Policy cheap medicine and facilities were promised to the masses. Administrative Reforms Administrative Reforms were introduced to eradicate corruption in the country. Hundreds of civil servants were removed on the charge of corruption. Problems of Reforms: Reforms were good in outlook but as their results were not according to the expectations of the masses. Discontentment took the place of initial optimism. 1977 Elections and Agitation: As a result of elections of 1977 PPP won the elections. But joint opposition blamed a mass rigging in the election results. They demanded fresh elections. Bhutto initially was stubborn but later showed inclination to compromise but history has taken a U-turn. As he refused to negotiate the elected majority party in 1971, now opposition refused to compromise and took the 50 case to the streets. Urban shopkeepers, businessmen, students, women and even the intelligentsia joined hands against the government. The result was the third Martial Law and end of democracy. 2: 1977-1985: Chief of Army Staff General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq took over and imposed Martial Law. He suspended constitution. It was the longest military Rule in the history of Pakistan. To justify his rule Zia-ul-Haq presented his Agenda about: • Effective Administration • Islamisation • Return to Democracy Major Policies: Zia-ul-Haq promised Elections first within 90 days, and then extended this period after the reforms. These reforms included: Accountability of the ousted regime; Restrictions imposed on political activities and press. Islamisation: In his way of Islamisation of the system he introduced many steps for forging cooperation of some Islamic groups. He also introduced Constitutional and legal changes to emphasis on Islamic values in the society. He established: • Shariat benches established in 1979; • Federal Shariat Court was established in 1981; • Introduced Islamic Punishments; Amputation of hands, Stoning to death and lashing etc; • Interest free banking initiated in 1981 on the principle of profit & loss sharing; • Zakat deducted on saving accounts & investments; • Ushar was imposed on agricultural produce in 1983; • New education Policy with Islamic character of syllabus along with Pakistan Studies and Islamiat compulsory for all the classes up to graduation. • Islamisation of Mass media; • Prayers break was introduced in offices, and Mohaallah Salat Committees were formed to observe the compliance of Prayer Ordinance; • Pakistan Bat-ul-Mall was established. Return to democracy In order to return to democracy Zia-ul-Haq took the following measure: 1. Local Bodies elections, 1979. 2. Referendum was held to elect Zia-ul-Haq as president for next five years on December 1984. 3. Then he held elections on non-party basis on February 1985. 51 4. New National Assembly (NA) was formed and a Civilian government was installed. 5. Revival of the Constitution Order March 1985 with most controversial 8th Constitutional Amendment was introduced. 6. Withdrawal of martial law, Dec 30, 1985. 3: 1985-1999 Civilian Rule Democracy was restored but no civilian government could complete its tenure of five years and became the victim of 58-2B of 8th amendment by virtue of that President can dissolve NA and dismiss the elected government. 1. Junejo March 1985-May 1988 2. Benazir Bhutto November 1988-Aug 1990 3. Nawaz Sharif October 1990-July 1993 4. Benazir Bhutto October 1993-November 1996 5. Nawaz Sharif February 1997-October 1999 Interim Prime Ministers appointed for holding fair elections were 1: Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi: August-November 1990 2: Bulkh Sher Mazari: April-May 1993 3: Dr. Moeen Qureshi: July-October 1993 4: Malik Meraj Khalid: November 1996-February 1997 Civilian government adopted policies for the welfare and betterment of the people but their effects were compromised due to several reasons: • Problem of keeping coalitions intact; • Weak political parties, which weakened the government; • Greater confrontation; • Complaints of corruption and misuse of state resources. 4: 1999-2002: In 1999 again Military Rule was imposed against the civilian government’s attempt to concentrate power in the office of Prime Minister. Nawaz government introduced political and constitutional changes to have a complete control on all branches of the government. Nawaz government’s attempt to remove the Army Chief, while he was out of the country and returning from his visit to Sri Lanka, proved counter productive. General Musharraf took over as the Chief Executive of the country and suspended the constitution. Martial law was not declared. No military courts were established. Political and press freedoms remained intact. Political Priorities: General Musharraf announced his Political Priorities: • Rebuild national confidence and morale; • Strengthening federation; • Remove inter provincial disharmony; • Restore national cohesion; 52 • Revival of the economy and restoration of investor’s confidence; • Improving Law and order situation and dispensation of Justice; • Depoliticise the state institutions and devolution of power; • Swift and across the board accountability. General Musharraf designed the following policies to achieve these goals: • Accountability and return of looted wealth of the state; • Revival of the economy through increasing Foreign exchange reserves and reducing International debt burden through rescheduling; • Poverty Reduction and social uplift. General Musharraf introduced New Local Bodies System, delegation of power to the District Government. In the process of Return to Democracy he held: 1. Referendum, April 2002. 2. Introduced Legal Framework Order (LFO). 3. Held General Elections of National And Provincial Assemblies on 10th Oct 2002. 4. Revival of the Constitution. 5. Civilian Governments formed in the provinces and the Centre. 5: Civilian Rule Established In the new set up Musharraf is President in uniform. Mir Zafer-Ullah-Khan Jamali was the head of a coalition government. In three provinces there are governments of Muslim League (Q) and in NWFP there is the government of MMA working successfully. Let’s hope for the gradual consolidation of democratic rule. 53 Lecture 24 Pak301 Geography, Land, Boundaries and Neighborhoods 1. Geography and the People 2. Boundaries 3. Neighborhoods 1: Geography and the People Pakistan was comprised of two wings when it came into existence on August 14, 1947. East Pakistan separated in 1971. Post-1971 or present day Pakistan is located in the Northwestern part of South Asian Sub-continent. It has maintained its distinctiveness in the Sub-continent. Indus Valley Civilization is as old as 2500-1600 BC. The archeological heritage of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro are clear evidence of this fact. Arians first came to this land followed by Islam and Muslims from Central Asia and Afghanistan. Muslim rule continued about one thousand years. Then the downfall of Muslim empire paved the way for British Rule, which ended with the formation of two independent states of India and Pakistan. Location: Pakistan is located between 24_37 degrees North latitude 61_75 degrees East longitude. Territory: Its area is 796,095 sq Kilometers. _______________________________________________ Territory percentage (in thousand) Balochistan 347.2 43.61 Punjab 205.3 25.81 Sindh 140.9 17.71 NWFP 74.6 9.4 FATA 27.2 3.4 Islamabad 0.9 0.1 _______________________________________________ Diversity in the nature of territory: • North and Northwest: It includes Mountains of Himalayan and trans-Himalayan Ranges, Korakoram & Pamirs, which includes some of highest peaks like K2, Nanga Parbat etc. • West: Baluchistan Plateau is about 1000 feet in elevation with dry mountains crossing it from northeast to the southwest. Here very little rainfall occurs. • Indus Plains: Main agricultural region in the middle of the Indus valley. • The Potohar Plateau is there in the East of upper Indus plains. • In South East of Indus Plains there is Deserts Thal, Cholistan and Thar. 54 Climate: Climate of Pakistan is diverse. North, Northwestern Mountains are extremely cold in winter but mild in summer. The Indus Plains are extremely hot in summer but cold and dry in winter. Coastal regions are having temperate climate. There are some variations within each region. Four Seasons: Summer: May to September Winter: November to February Spring: March-April Autumn: September-October Rain: It varies from region to region. The main rainy season is the summer i.e. Monsoon. Population: Pakistan is having a large population. The growth rate recorded over 3 percent in the 1970s to early 1990s. Now declined due to a number of measures by the government but still it is higher as compare to the other countries of the region. Census is taken after every ten years. 1951, 1961, 1972, 1981, 1998 ———————————————– Year Population Annual Growth In Million Percent 1951 36.2 — 1961 46.2 2.80 1972 65.3 3.10 1981 84.3 3.06 1998 130.6 2.61 In 2006, the population is estimated to be over 160 million. Important Features of the Population: • More than 50 Percent population is under the age of 21. A large part of this population is dependent. • Add to this people over 65 years. • About 30 percent population lives in urban areas. • Why migrations to urban areas: Education, jobs, facilities etc. • Impact of urbanization: Poor civic conditions, education, health, housing, town planning etc. • Provincial population. Punjab 56-57 percent Sind 23 percent NWFP 14 percent Baluchistan 5.3 percent • Low literacy rate: Official literacy rate is 46 percent but functional literacy rate is even lower. 55 • Women literacy rate is much lower. In certain areas of Baluchistan women literacy is nominal to non-existent. • Why population figures are important. For Planning and development, Socio-economic development and poverty alleviation etc. • Social development indicators are poor in Pakistan. No ideal figure for population can be named. It depends upon the resources. High population is asset as well as a liability because we cannot feed them. • Efforts to manage population are being done by the Government as well as by nongovernmental organizations in the field of health care, family planning and education. 2: Boundaries: Pakistan shares boundaries with four countries. • China in the northeast: About 600 km long border in the Northern Areas. Silk Route is a major link for trade and traveling. • Afghanistan: North and Northwest about 1200 miles. Durand Line was drawn on November 1893 as a border between the two neighbors. • Iran in the West share about 590 miles border from Koh-i-Malik Siah to Gawadar. • India in the East having a border about 1400 miles which was established in August 1947. • We also face India on the LOC in Kashmir, the most troubled frontier having hardly any natural barriers, highly volatile and porous. • South: Arabian Sea, Coastline 450 miles. Stretches from the Rann of Kutch Indian border to the Iranian border in the West. 3: Neighborhoods: Pakistan is located in strategically important region. It is the center of global interests. For all the big powers like China and Russia it is important. U.S maintains interests to keep an eye on both China and Russia. It is on the gateway of Central Asian Muslim States through Afghanistan. On the other side of it is the outer region of the Gulf region having rich oil resources and economic wealth. Pakistan has close brotherly ties with these states. Now the pipelines of oil and gas are planning to be passed through Pakistan. It will be a new start of economic cooperation in the region. 888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 56 Lecture 25 Pak301 Natural Resources, Agriculture 1: Natural Resources Mineral Resources Rivers and Canals Forests Animals 2: Agriculture 1: Natural Resources: The resources endowed by the nature to the country and the people are called National Resources, e.g., Mineral resources, rivers, forests and animals. Agricultural lands hold key to development and prosperity of a country. The rate of development and prosperity of a country depends on efforts to make use of it. Effective management and human efforts are needed to avail them. Modern technology is also required to make use of it. Mineral Resources: Pakistan is blessed with considerable mineral resources. Some of them are explored but much remains to be done for the search for more. Some important resources are: • Iron Ore is used for industry, especially steel industry. It is found in limited quantity and low quality. Most of the required Iron ore is imported from abroad. Its deposits are found in Chitral, Chaghai, Kohat, Kurram Agency, Mardan, Hazara, Mianwali (Kalabagh) and DG Khan. • Chromite: is used in preparing other metals, leather tanning, making of steel products, armament and stainless steel. The deposits of Chromite are found in Zoab (Muslim Bagh), Chaghai, Malakand, Mahmand, Waziristan, Fort Sandaman etc. • Gypsum is used for plaster of Paris, Paints and Cement. It is found in Jhelum, Mianwali, DG Khan, Kohat and Loralai. • Sulphur is used by chemical industry. Its deposits are found in Kalat, Khairpur, Mardan, and Jacobabad etc. • Coal is used in power generation. It is basically used as fuel. It is not found in good quantity and quality. It is mostly found in Sindh (Thatta, Tharparkar, Manara) Balochistan (Deegari, Sharig, Soer, Khost, Maach, Hernai), Punjab (Makarwal, Dandot), NWFP (Cherat and Noshera). • Oil: It is a major source of energy. It is mostly imported from Iran and Gulf states. Now some valuable reserves are found in Jhelum, Mianwali, Attock, Balkasar, Mial, Chakwal, and Dhodak. 57 • Gas: it is itself a source of energy and fuel, and also used as a source of power generation. It is found in Sui, Mari, Uch, Khairpur, Jacobabad etc. Now some new discoveries are also found. • Uranium: It is the basic element for atomic power, indispensable for the defence. Its deposits are in DG Khan, Hazara and Kohat. Rivers: The river system of Pakistan is consisted of Indus and other associated rivers. We have a well-defined Canal system. The most important one is the Indus Basin project. What we require is the proper management of water, its conservation, effective use, storage, dams and flood control. Water is dangerous if it is too much, it become a problem if it is too little. It is used for Agriculture where it is the backbone of agro-economy. It is also a cheapest source of hydroelectric Power generation. Forests: Normally 25 percent area of a country should be covered with forest. But in Pakistan it is only 4 to 5 percent. Some areas are not suitable for plantation like deserts and dry mountains. It is because of shortage of water and rainfall. Deforestation is also due to unplanned cutting of trees. Advantages: Forests have many advantages. They are helpful in improvement of weather. Protect against windstorms, help in slow melting of snow to stop floods. They add greenery, beauty and fresh air to the environment. Plants are source of food, medicine, timber, chemicals and fertilizers. They are the homes of animals, birds and insects. They are also used as fuel. Animals: Animals provide milk, meat, hide and skins, wool etc. They are also used for agriculture and transportation. They are a source of foreign exchange. Their proper breeding requires planning and care. Animal husbandry and colleges of research are established to breed and cure useful species of animals. Department of Live Stock also provides Support System for raising animals both privately and through Government Projects. Government farms and military farms are also working for that purpose. Fisheries: It is also a source of food and income. Department of fisheries also encourage private farmers to invest in this field and add to personal and national wealth. 2: Agriculture Pakistan is an agricultural country. More than 70 percent of its population lives in rural areas. Over 50 percent are directly engaged in farming or agro-based activities. • Share of agriculture to GDP is 26 percent. • In Punjab and Sindh plains are very large. There are irrigated farmlands. • Two major crops are yielded in a year (a) RABI: Sown in October-November and produce obtained in April-May. Important produces are Wheat, Gram, Oil seeds. 58 (b) KHARIF: Sown in May-June and produce is obtained in October-November. Important crops are Rice, Sugar Cane, Cotton etc. • Main crops: Wheat, Rice, Cotton, Sugar Cane, Gram, Maize, Mustard, Tobacco, Oil seeds, Fruits and vegetables. • Land Reforms are introduced from time to time by different governments: in 1959, 1972, and 1977. The aim was to reduce land holding and to strengthen the position of tenants. It was done for improving yield per acre and poverty alleviation in agriculture field. Problems in Agriculture: There are number of problems in our agriculture, for instance: 1. Outdated modes of cultivation, which cause low per acre yield. 2. Water Logging and Salinity. Attention is being given to these since mid 1960. 3. Crop diseases are big problem. Technical support is being provided by Department of Agricultural. It helped to overcome the problem. Our inputs have problem of quality, which cause low prices in market. Other handicaps are low quality seeds, costly fertilizers, non-availability of electricity or oil for tube well etc. 4. Water related problem, sometimes it is too little, but sometimes it is too much. Cleaning of Canals is also necessary to provide water at the end of canal. 5. Credit facilities are also problematic. 6. Access to market is difficult. 7. Availability of reasonable price should be ensured for the welfare of the farmers and high yield of crop. Agriculture and Development Plans: • Research is done for the development of high yield seeds giving better output. Information and guidance is being provided to the common farmer to enjoy the fruits of the advance research in the field of agriculture. University education is developed in various parts of Pakistan especially in Faisalabad and Jamshoro. Emphasis is laid on modern technology in practical field. • Communication and transportation facilities are increased. • Government ensures the payment to the farmers for their produce immediately. 888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 59 Lecture 26 Pak301 Industrial Development 1. Importance 2. Historical Overview 3. Major Industries 4. Future Directions 1: Importance: Industrialization is the key to economic development and overall prosperity. Without it no economy can grow. It is the backbone of a strong and stable economy. It is the basis of modernization and development of the state. Industrialization helps the international standing of a state. Industry and technology go together. It enhances trade and save foreign exchange. Industrialization brings self-reliance for a nation. It is also important for agriculture. Agriculture provides raw materials and so input for industry and output is the finished goods. Industrialization improves the quality of life, help in Poverty reduction, and provide employment facilities. Industrialization has close relevance with the defence and security of the country. 2: Historical Overview: In 1947 Pakistan inherited very small industrial infrastructure. Only about 4 percent of India’s industry was there in areas of Pakistan. It was insufficient to meet the needs of the day-today life. Initially sugar mills, biscuit factories, cigarettes factories, oil mill, cement units, match factory, steel rolling, and glass work factories were set up. Priorities set out in the early years: 1. Industry would be based on indigenous raw materials. 2. Consumer goods should be manufactured to meet the immediate needs of the people. 3. Private initiative to be encouraged. 4. The state to be involved in the process through: facilitation and help, financial help, tax incentives, protective tariffs etc. It also played direct role to set up industry. 5. Training and research facilities would be provided. 6. Industrial Development Board was formed in 1948. All Five Years Plans from 1955, 1960, 1965-70 paid greater emphasis on private sector and rapid industrialization. It added to aggregate economic growth. Institutional Arrangements: • Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) was established under a law in 1950. It encouraged the setting up of industry that was less attractive for the private sector. Initially 15 industries were identified. • Industrial Development Bank of Pakistan (IDBP) was set up in 1961. It provided loan facilities for industrial projects at concessional rates to middle and small investors. • PICIC: Pak Industrial Credit & Investment Corporation was established to give loans and credit facilities, including foreign exchange facility, for setting up industry. It also launched investment schemes. • Investment Promotion Bureau, 1959 was formed for the promotion of domestic and foreign investment and to provide advice and guidance to investors and provision of necessary help to them. • Other institutions like ICP, NDFC, NIT were established. • External financial and technical support was provided both bilateral and multilateral by World Bank, IMF, and Colombo Plan etc. Nationalisation of the Seventies: New democratic government of PPP after assuming power adopted the policy of nationalisation. Ten basic industries were nationalised. Later some others were also taken over to 60 have a greater state role. Initial euphoria ended and industrial output suffered. It also caused flight of capital from the country. Since the early 1990s: The policy of the governments in 1990s changed. Since 1990s all the governments including that of PPP followed the policy of denationalisation and privatisation. They are promoting free economy, foreign investment, non-governmental initiatives, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and investment from Pakistanis settled outside the country. 3: Major Industries: • Textiles: It is major industry based on agriculture, heavy textile industry caters to domestic and external market. Major Centres are Faisalabad, Multan, Lahore and Karachi. Woollen Cloth is manufactured in Karachi, Lawrencepur, Harnai, Quaidabad, Multan and Bannu. • Sugar: Pakistan has made tremendous progress in this industry. It is a food item; agro based industry, located in Sindh, Punjab and Sindh. • Cement: This industry has gone through major expansion. Over 20 factories are established in the pubic and private sectors which cater to Pakistani needs. Still it is imported in limited quantity. Most of the sites are in Dandot, Daud Khel, Wah, Rori and Karachi. • Vegetable Ghee: Cooking oil is a major food item. There is much expansion over the years both in private and public sectors. Now we are self sufficient, although some raw material for making cooking oil is imported. About 60 units are in Sindh, Punjab and NWFP. • Iron and Steel: Steel Mill near Karachi was set up with the help of the former Soviet Union. The major problem was that of raw material. The iron ore found in Pakistan is very poor in quality. Steel rolling units and iron related factories exist in different parts of Pakistan. • Paper: Major paper industry was in East Pakistan, which was lost in 1971. We had to face shortage of locally made paper after 1971. Now this industry is located in Noshera, Charsada, Gujranwala, Lahore, and Gharo. Some quality paper has to be imported. • Machine, tools: Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC) Texla serve this purpose. HMC was set up with Chinese cooperation. • Machinery, industrial equipment, engineering goods, engines, machinery for sugar, cement, and fertilizer industry is prepared here. • Defence Industry: Wah Ordnance Complex is established for weapons and armaments. HMC is making Tank Rebuild Factory. Kamara Aircraft Rebuild factory overhaul F-6 and Mirage. It is also manufacturing Maashak, K-8. • Other Important Industry: Fertilizer, Tobacco and cigarettes, Oil Refineries, Cars and Tractors production, Shipbuilding: Karachi Shipyard, Ship breaking. • Cottage Industry: Industries established on small scale, involving a household or small number of people, use of limited resources, having less investment are called small or cottage industries e. g., Carpets, sports goods, toys, power or handlooms, handicraft etc. 4: Future Directions: There is no escape from industrialization. It is a must for prosperity and development. We are having Mixed economy with an emphasis on private initiative. Privatisation and Foreign investment need appropriate conditions: political and economic stability, infrastructure, less bottle necks, corruption issue, low interest loans and state support and above all security of investment. 888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888888 61 Lecture 27 Pak301 Education in Pakistan Major Areas Covered: 1. Importance 2. Educational Issues 3. Kinds of Education 1: Importance of Education: Education is a key to development for individual, society and state. It shapes natural qualities and talents of the individuals. It has positive relevance to family and society. It also confers citizens’ confidence to deal with environment, a sense of purpose. Education provides a goal orientation and is helpful to others by educating them. Education provides entitlement to job and professions. It gives effective tanning to the citizens about their rights and duties. It plays a more constructive role in character building of the person and in turn society as a whole. Education should be integrated to nation building and should be able to transmit the primary values. Education should be responsible for the formation of attitude. It should transmit socialization among individuals. Education system is designed according to the ideology of the state and its identity. Education is the indicator of socio-economic development. For the real progress proper educational facilities should be provided. Literacy rate should be enhanced. Trained and qualified human power can make a nation success. Only such educated people can better be equipped to deal with changing situations and challenges of the time. Education provides better understanding of international environment that affects all of us. Islam asks Muslims to get education. Other religions also value education. 2: Educational Issues: From historical perspective Pakistan has made commendable efforts for spreading education since independence. Funding, facilities and free primary education was introduced to enhance student enrolment. Following steps were taken for uplift of education: • It made integral to development planning in all Five Year Plans and Yearly Plans. • Education Commission was established and new Education policies were introduced. • Critical evaluation points out serious issues requiring immediate attention for enabling education to achieve its goals. Problem of Resources: Resource allocation for education is far from satisfactory. It is much less than what a large number of countries spend on education, especially those having developed after World War II. Most of these allocations go to salaries and administration. Fewer amounts are given for infrastructure, facilities of research and development. Low Literacy: In Pakistan literacy rate is 46 per cent. While meaningful literacy is far less. Female literacy is lower. In rural areas literacy is much low. Enrolment and Retention: All Children are not enrolled in schools. Drop out at the primary and high school level is very high. The incentive to send children to the school is to retain them there. Poverty and lack of 62 appreciation cause drop out. Not enough schools with proper facilities. Number of schools exist on papers only i.e., Ghost schools. Teachers related issues: Shortage of qualified teachers at the lower levels is main cause of less interest of young students towards education. Student-teacher ratio is very high in Pakistan. So the teacher cannot properly treat students. Teachers are not given any incentives for devotion to the profession. Salary and other facilities especially at the lower levels are very disappointing. Training and refresher courses are also inadequate. New techniques of teaching and facilities needed for good teaching should be provided to the teachers. Examination System: Examination System remained a problematic issue in Pakistan. How to judge the performance of students is a difficult question. Instead of comprehension and depth of knowledge emphasis is laid on test of memory. Learning is geared to passing the examination. Some people work only at the end of the year and get good marks due to flaw in the system. Some of they use unfair means. Students have were little knowledge of how the papers are actually graded. This becomes a serious problem at the higher levels. Still there is a debate that whether Annual system or Semester system should be adopted. Politicization: Student groups have political links with outside groups. Political parties have their sub units in educational institutions, which result in use of violence and threats. This also damages the educational environment. Kinds of Education: Primary: From class 1 to 5 years is primary stage. Mosque schools are also working on this level. Efforts are being made to make it universal. Middle Level: It is from class 6 to 8. Secondary: It is from class 9 to 10. Higher Secondary: It is from class 11 to 12. Degree Level: It is a university level education for 2 or 3 years for the award of bachelor degree of Science/ Arts. University, Post Graduate Level: M. A., M.Sc., M.Phil. and Ph. D. Specialized diplomas and programs are also offered at this level. Colleges are also teaching at Postgraduate level. Now some Colleges are given university status. 63 Professional: Professional educational fields are Medical, Dentistry, Engineering, Business and Commerce are Technical and professional degrees. Adult Education: For adults who could not get education in their early years adult education is introduced for them. Distance Education: People do not go to an institution but stay home and get education. This method is useful for people in service and for those living in remote areas. This is a method of Improvement of qualification without actually going to an institution. It is a Flexible system in which Lectures and tutorial system are used through media. Examples are: • Allama Iqbal Open University. • Virtual University: TV and Internet. Privatization of Education: Schools (English medium), Colleges and Universities are introduced in private sector. Some of them are imparting some good quality education but very expensive. Military Foundations: • Medical and IT education • National University of Science and Technology • Bharia University • Air Force University Modern Technology and Education: Technology education means education of IT, Computers- software and hardware. IT and regular education, Access to knowledge and technical education. Concluding Remarks: Education in Pakistan could not play a proper role. That’s why Pakistan is much behind of some of the developing countries. The only way to meet the challenges of the time is to provide technical education at all levels. For that purpose spending on education should be raised. Primary education should be universal and women education should be enhanced. Only meaningful education can fulfill the demands of development. 64 Lecture 28 Pak301 Foreign Policy of Pakistan Features & Highlights No state can live in isolation. There is a need of interaction. The linkages between internal & external environment are very necessary to create harmonious relations among the peoples living in the different regions. The national interests and identity, economic reasons, peace and stability are the motives of foreign policy of a country. Pakistan functions at different levels: Bilateral and Multilateral. It is also a member of the UN and other international organizations. Features of Foreign Policy: The main aims of features of ‘Foreign Policy’ are protection of- independence, Sovereignty and Territorial Integrity. Primary concern is the SECURITY through diplomacy and military security arrangements. National mobilization regarding Pakistan’s security vis-à-vis India influenced foreign policy options. Strong defense is indispensable for survival. Relations with All States: Pakistan has good relations with almost all the nations of the world on the basis of mutuality of interests, cordiality, peace and non-interference in internal affairs. Pakistan believes that problems to be resolved peacefully. Relations with Major Powers: The nature of relations with major powers has varied. United States Pakistan-US relations have been generally friendly but problems developed from time to time on nuclear issue, arms sales, Kashmir etc. China China proved to be a reliable and consistent friend over the periods of decades. Pakistan supported China diplomatically in the UN and the Outside. Both the countries have developed close relations in all the areas including economic development and industrialization, defense, science and technology, environment and trade. Russia Pakistan has working relations with Russia but frequent problems remained unsolved during the period of Cold War. Russia remained favorable to India at the cost of its relations with Pakistan. On Kashmir issue, her attitude has been pro India. Some economic relations strengthened the bilateral relations when Russia provided economic and technological assistance to Pakistan in establishing steel mill in Karachi. In postCold War era, Pakistan is trying to normalize the relations. The recent tour of President Musharraf is a step towards this goal. Economic Issues, Trade, Investment: Greater importance is attributed to the issues like economic development, direct foreign investment and trade relations in international relations. Foreign policy is linked with foreign assistance from the World Bank, IMF, Asian Development Bank, International Development Bank and other sources. Economic relations are both bilateral and multi-lateral. Technology, trade, access to market and investment are keys to the cordial relations between the two countries. Pakistan is also trying to establish its relations with other countries on the same footings. Muslim States: Being Islamic country, Pakistan has been always in search of good relations with the Muslim countries. It has been a central point in the ideology of Pakistan even before Independence. Solidarity with the Developing States: Pakistan had been concerned with the issues and problems of the states of Asia, Africa and Latin America. As it is developing countries it is well aware of the problems of 65 underdevelopment, poverty, disease, famine, civil strife and border disputes, refugees and drug addiction. Pakistan always emphasized on the UN and developed countries to help them. Peace cannot be maintained if humanity is suffering. Cooperation among developing countries in the areas of economic and technical assistance, trade and diplomacy support to these causes should be enhanced. United Nations: Pakistan joined the UN on Sept. 30, 1947. It has commitment to the UN Charter and active in UN bodies. Pakistan has enjoyed the Security Council membership for 6 times. It has been a part of UN Peace-Keeping Missions all over the world. Anti-Colonialism, Right of Self Determination: As we have been suffering from colonial rule we always support decolonization for Asia and Africa. Pakistan always opposed racial discrimination in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), South Africa, Namibia etc. It always supported right of self determination for Kashmir, Palestine, Afghanistan and others. Arms Control: Pakistan believes that arms races to be controlled, resources to be used for human development. It has spoken for this cause in the UN and the outside. It opposed arms race not only at the superpower level but also at the regional and bilateral levels both for conventional and non conventional arms. It stressed that the root causes of arms races should be curtailed. Nuclear Policy: Pakistan has been champion of peaceful uses of nuclear technology. Pakistan avoided nuclear explosions despite having the knowledge and capability of processing Uranium, Plutonium. It was only for the sake of deterrence and reaction to India’s nuclear explosions. Relations with India: The most problematic area of Pakistan’s foreign policy is the relationship with India. The relations have been strained since independence in 1947. There were periods of normal relations but generally it remained troubled marked with distrust and conflict. This bitterness caused three major wars in 1947-48, 1965 and 1971. Limited conflicts and trouble at LoC (Line of Control) along with propaganda war are common practices. Tension escalated when the troops on the border from both sides faced each other throughout 2002. India was not ready to open dialogue. But now there is a hope of bilateral dialogue on Kashmir and other issues. It is the only way to bring prosperity and peace for 1.2 billion people of South Asia. Kashmir: Main source of conflict between India and Pakistan is Kashmir dispute. It should be resolved under the UN Resolutions. But India has declared it as integral part of it. Instead of having plebiscite, she has blamed Pakistan for initiating insurgency in Kashmir since 1989. India claims that it is engineered by Pakistan and equates this with terrorism. Control of Terrorism: Pakistan is an active participant in global efforts to contain terrorism. Pakistan withdrew support to Taliban and joined hands with the international community. She also acted against terrorists within Pakistan, as it was victim of terrorism & sectarianism. Pakistan believes that to eradicate terrorism first the root causes of the problem should be removed. Concluding Remarks: Pakistan has been an active member of the international community. It has been balancing the diverse pressures through diplomacy, engagement and compromises for the betterment of humanity. 66 Lecture 29 Pak301 Pakistan and the Muslim World Foundations: The Muslims of the sub-continent have deep-rooted affiliation with the Islamic countries on the basis of religion. They demonstrated this zeal of brotherhood on many occasions. From the days of Pakistan movement, Muslims of India followed the traditional policy with the Muslim World. Pan-Islamism and Islamic values were the strongest motives behind the demand of a separate Muslim state. So after the partition, they always preferred close bilateral relations with the Muslim countries. The principles of policy in all the constitutions carry special attachment for Muslims and their heritage. The love for Muslim brotherhood continued during and after the independence. Support for Independence: Pakistan rendered full moral support for the independence of Indonesia, Tunis, Morocco, Algeria, Libya, Sudan and Eritrea. Palestine: Pakistan, being a Muslim state, always sided with the national rights of the Palestinian people. It strongly supported the independent Palestinian state. Sharing grievous concern over the atrocities inflicted on the Muslims, it condemned the Israeli policies. Organization of Islamic Conference: Organization of Islamic Conference is the largest Muslim forum in the world. Pakistan was among the 51 Muslim nations which attended the inaugural session in Rabat (1969). Its second conference was held at Lahore in 1974. Pakistani desired to make it an effective forum to address the political, economic, technical, scientific matters. The OIC always supported Pakistan on Kashmir. RCD and ECO: Pakistan, Iran and Turkey signed Regional Cooperation Development in July 1964. It worked for economic development till 1985 when it was renamed as ECO. Later on, Afghanistan and five Central Asian Republics, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan joined it. Muslim World: Pakistan has good relations with all the Muslim countries. Saudi Arabia: Saudi Arabia being sacred country is a centre of the Muslim ‘Ummah’. Both the counties have conformity on major issues including Kashmir. The Saudi cooperation for the OIC and wars with India is unprecedented. 67 UAE, Kuwait and other Gulf States: These countries and States have close and cordial relations with Pakistan. The ruling families make official and personal visits. The new era of economic relations has set in after the Gawadar port was built. Iran: Iran is a neighboring state with long historical and cultural ties. Iran was the first that recognized Pakistan. Iran’s King was also the first head of state who visited Pakistan. Both had joint arrangements in regard to CENTO, RCD, and ECO. Iran supported Pakistan in the wars with India. It stressed on liberty of the people of Jammu and Kashmir. Pakistan welcomed the Iranian Revolution of February 1979. In March 1997 President Rafsanjani and in December 2002, Khatami visited Pakistan. Turkey: Turkey is another country with a long history of close and cordial relations with Pakistan. Both have great contribution in the multilateral arrangements of CENTO, RCD, ECO, etc. Egypt: Egypt under Nasser had some reservations due to Pakistan’s ties with the West. Pakistan supported Egypt when it was attacked by Israel in 1956, 1967, 1973. The relations began to improve since 1967 and especially after the death of Nasser in 1970. Libya: Col. Qazzafi has been a great well wisher and supporter of Pakistan. In American air raids in 1986, Pakistan condemned American attack. Jordan: Jordan is another example of cordiality. King Hussain had special regard for Pakistan. He supported us on India-Pakistan issues. King Abdullah continued with this tradition. Both have military relationship, trade and diplomatic exchanges. Afghanistan: Afghanistan is a neighboring state. It sided with the ‘Pakhtunistan’ issue and created problems for Pakistan. The Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan gave birth to the Mujahideen groups, Taliban. The Sept 11, 2001 incident in America concluded major changes in the world diplomacy. After Taliban, Karzai government took responsibility of Afghanistan’s reconstruction. Bangladesh: Bangladesh was East Pakistan but the internal instability and external conspiracies gave birth to Bangladesh. Pakistan had initially bitter relations but recognized it in 1974 that set in the normalization of relations. Both worked together in SAARC, OIC. 68 Lecture 30 Pak301 Course Review This course of Pakistan Studies is aiming at to provide some basic data and information for updating our knowledge and to provide a better understanding of the past and the present with the objective of exploring prospects for the future. Major Areas Covered: 1. Ideology of Pakistan 2. Freedom Movement 3. The New State, Constitutions and Political History 4. Basic Data on Pakistan 5. Foreign Policy 1: Ideology of Pakistan: What is an Ideology? It is a set of BELIEFS, VALUES & IDEALS a group and a nation subscribes to ingrained in the social consciousness of the people over time. It provides: 1. Principles, Ideals, Vision for the future 2. Review of existing political, social and economic arrangements. 3. A consciousness based on its principles 4. A commitment and a sense of direction 5. Legitimization and De-legitimization 6. Leadership’s role Ideology of Pakistan is actually Two-Nation Theory, i.e., Muslims possess a distinct Socio-Political and Cultural Identity and are a separate NATION. This sentiment was provided and buttressed by ISLAM and its WORLDVIEW. Islam plays a CORE and CENTRAL role in creating this consciousness. Other factors like history, economy and political experience were also there. In India there was a gradual evolution of this consciousness among the Muslims. 2: Freedom Movement: Its study is important to understand why Muslim Identity acquired political salience. Why did the Muslims demand a separate state? The reasons were: • Muslim Political experience in India during 1857-1947 played vital role. • Changed political environment under the British created a new situation = Colonial Rule = New Elite with Modern Education having Conscious of Rights and Interests. = Competition with the majority community. • Initial demands of the Indian Muslims were safeguards against encroachment of majority community, Constitutional Guarantees, a Federation of Provinces. During the course of Indian Politics important topics covered were: • Lucknow Pact • Delhi Muslim Proposals • Jinnah’s 14 Points 69 • Roundtable Conferences. When the Muslims demanded a separate state, a number of factors were responsible for that demand: • Role of Nehru Report • Provincial Ministries • The Cabinet Mission Plan 3: New State, Political History and Constitution: We started with the problems in setting up the new state and Constitution making. Issues were structure of federation, representation, language, electoral system, Islamic state, and parliamentary or presidential system. Then we studied History of Constitution making: • Workings of two Constituent Assemblies. • One Unit Scheme • Constitution made in Feb 1956 • Constitution of 1962, 1973 • Features of the Constitutions • Experiment with different systems, parliamentary and presidential. • Political History: 1947-1971 and 1972-to the Present. Basic Data and Information: Then we shared some information about: • Geography, Physical Features, Boundaries and Neighborhoods of Pakistan, • Natural Resources, Agriculture • Industrialization • Education. These factors influence domestic Choices, policies, status and interaction with other states i.e. boundaries & neighborhoods. Their study is vital for policy makers. Foreign Policy: This chapter discusses the framework of Foreign Policy and Relations with the Muslim States. The aims of Foreign Policy are: • National Interest • Independence, Sovereignty • Friendship with all on the basis of Sovereign equality, Shared interests, • Mutual benefits, Non-interference. • Peaceful resolution of conflicts. • Faith in the UN Charter *********************************************************************************** 70

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